- Diarrhea reasons
- Diarrhea symptoms
- Treatment of Diarrhea
Diarrhea means increase in frequency of excrements for most of people, however medical definition is more exact. Diarrhea is defined correlates with increase in weight of a chair; this increase is generally connected a lot of water which usually makes from 60 to 85% of excrements. Thus, true diarrhea differs from diseases which cause only increase in quantity of excrements or a chair incontience.
Viral and bacterial infections are the most common cause of acute diarrhea.
Around the world acute infectious diarrhea causes high mortality. Though the majority of cases of death is observed among children under five years in developing countries, influence, even in the developed countries, is considerable.
Diarrhea is observed at increase in volume of liquid in a large intestine which exceeds the norm capable to be soaked up in this department of intestines. As a rule, in thick department of intestines more liquid can be soaked up several times, than arrives. However, when this reserve of power is overloaded, there is diarrhea.
Diarrhea is caused by infections or diseases which lead or to excess products of liquid, or disturbance of its absorption. Besides, some substances in a large intestine, such as fats and bile acids, can interfere with absorption of water and cause diarrhea. Bystry passing of a chyme through a large intestine also causes diarrhea.
Diarrhea are classified by doctors on acute which lasts 1-2 weeks, and as chronic which proceeds longer, than 2-3 weeks. Most often diarrhea is accompanied by fever, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pains. The number of acts of defecations can reach 20 and more times a day. Sometimes in Calais impurity of pus or blood is found. The chair may contain undigested food.
Infections (for example, diarrhea of travelers), food poisonings and drugs are the most common cause of acute diarrhea. Diarrhea can be collateral effects of use of antibiotics and antacids.
Chronic diarrhea is connected with the same factors which cause acute episodes of diarrhea, however its duration is more. Persistent infections, (for example, a lambliasis) or decrease in immunity become the frequent reason. Children have the most common cause of chronic diarrhea a food allergy and a lactose intolerance. Kids who drink too much juice can have a frequent, liquid chair.
It is necessary to see a doctor if the frequency of excrements makes 3 times a day and more within 2 days or more if excrements contain blood or in the presence of symptoms of dehydration. Symptoms of dehydration include decrease an urination, slackness, a xeroderma and the general weakness.
If diarrhea arose at the newborn, it is necessary to see a doctor if:
- dryness of an oral cavity;
- there are no tears during crying;
- a diaper dry within three and more hours;
- it is observed the sunk-down eyes, cheeks and a fontanel;
- the expressed slackness takes place;
- a slow raspravleniye of a skin fold after a pinch.
In most cases acute diarrhea does not need additional diagnosis. But persons of any age with the increased temperature over 102 °F (38,9 °C), symptoms of dehydration, a bloody chair, severe pain in a stomach, existence of immune diseases, have to undergo some inspections.
The most informative is crops the calla and a research on presence of parasites.
The earlier crops a calla are carried out, the it is more than chances to receive a positive take. If the patient within the last months received antibiotics, it is necessary to exclude the diagnosis of the antibiotiko-associated colitis. It is necessary to check by a kalmikroskopichesky method for existence of erythrocytes and leukocytes. In parallel the conducted endoscopic examination of intestines will help to find the pathology causing diarrhea. Carrying out an integrated analysis of blood is shown.
At chronic diarrhea the same volume of researches, as is shown at acute since often the reasons same. To the expressed weight of a state point loss of weight more than to 4,5 kg, availability of blood in a chair emergence of episodes of diarrhea at night.
Many drugs may contain additives, such as lactose and sorbite which cause diarrhea in people, sensitive to them. Existence of an allergy or skin changes can indicate the reason also.
Treatment of Diarrhea:
Treatment has to be directed to elimination of the reasons, however, prevention or treatment of dehydration and a hyponutrient has to be the first purpose. Type of liquid and nutrients depending on an introduction method – oral or parenteral. If the condition of the patient it allows. It is necessary to carry out a regidratation by peroral saline solutions.
If ofitsinalny solutions are for some reason not available, it is possible to prepare solution for a regidratation in house conditions. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends composition of similar solution which is accepted by small drinks:
- table salt (3/4 teaspoons);
- baking soda (1 teaspoon);
- orange juice, 1 St;
- water to 1 liter.
At chronic diarrhea the drugs suppressing motility of bodies of a GIT such as loperamide and diphenoxylate are shown. Their use is limited or it is even contraindicated at most of people with acute diarrhea, especially at patients with high temperature or a bloody chair. They should not be accepted without consultation with the doctor, and should not be used at children.
Depending on the reason of a diarrhea also other methods of treatment can be appointed. Anti-diarrheal drugs which reduce excessive secretion of liquid of digestive tract can be used. Avoidance of drugs and products which cause diarrhea (for example, lactose) is medical for some people.
One of effective actions for prevention and treatment of diarrhea is peroral the drugs containing lakto-and bifidobacteria. These drugs are especially shown if for the patient it is diagnosed an antibiotic - the associated diarrhea.
Special significance is attached to the patient's food with diarrhea. It is necessary to increase the content of zinc in a diet since its deficit it becomes frequent the reason of a chronic diarrhea. For prevention of dehydration patients have to use enough liquid. It is recommended to use bananas, rice, apple puree and toasts. These products provide an organism with food fibers.
Acute homeopathic remedies can be very effective for treatment of diarrhea especially at newborns and children of younger age.
The mode of hygiene and adequate methods of processing of foodstuff can prevent many cases of diarrhea.