- Symptoms of dehydration (dehydration)
- Reasons of dehydration (dehydration)
- Treatment of dehydration (dehydration)
Dehydration is called the loss of water and salts necessary for normal work of an organism. Dehydration develops when the organism loses liquids more, than it it is required. Dehydration can break difficult balance liquid-electrolytes which is necessary for life activity of healthy cells and fabrics. The human body, as a rule, more than for 60% consists of water. The balance is supported by such mechanism as thirst. When the organism needs more water, the brain stimulates nerve centers, the person feels thirst.
Kidneys are responsible for maintenance of a water balance by removal of waste products and excesses of water. Water first of all is soaked up through digestive tract and removed by kidneys with urine. Change of volume of internal water depends on ability of kidneys to dilute and concentrate urine as required.
Children need more water, than the adult because they spend more energy. Dehydration at children usually results from loss of a large amount of liquid and insufficient water consumption for loss completion. This state often arises at children with a gastric disturbance (vomiting or diarrhea), at the fever expressed to perspiration. Dehydration can be caused by disease state; hot, arid climate; long influence of the sun or high temperatures; insufficient water consumption, abuse of diuretics or other drugs which increase an urination.
Symptoms of dehydration (dehydration):
Dehydration are classified as easy, moderate or heavy on the basis of that how many liquid it is lost according to loss of weight. Slight dehydration is shown by loss no more than 5-6% of body weight. Loss of 7-10% is considered moderate dehydration. Heavy dehydration (loss more than 10% of body weight) represents a life-threatening state which demands immediate medical care.
When intake of liquid in an organism is reduced, hypovolemic shock can develop. At this state skin turns pale, becomes covered by a cold clammy sweat, a cardiopalmus and shallow breathing is observed.
Arterial pressure sometimes falls so low that it cannot be measured, and skin on a lap and elbows can become spotty. The alarm, concern is observed. At achievement of the body temperature of 41,7 °C irreversible injuries of a brain and other vitals develop.
Dehydration is one of the main reasons for child mortality around the world. Dehydration often is result of gastrointestinal diseases and diarrhea at children. In developing countries, dehydration from a disease is a common cause of death of children under five years that makes about 2 million cases of death a year.
The moderate form of dehydration is followed dryness of an oral cavity, at the same time the patient's eyes a little hollow. Thirst increases: the patient greedy drinks water. Elasticity of skin decreases. Small children have a fontanel which fell.
Patients with heavy dehydration are, as a rule, sluggish, are in a stupor or even in a coma. Symptoms are even more obvious (deeply sunk down eyes, lack of tears, very dry a mouth and language, bystry and deep breath). The skin fold finishes very slowly (within two seconds). The patient who is in a stupor cannot independently drink water. Lack of a mocheotdeleniye within 6 and more hours is observed. Arterial pressure decreases or is not defined at all, hands and legs cool, nail plates can have bluish or purple color.
Dehydration can lead to a lock, discomfort, drowsiness, fever. Skin becomes pale and cold, mucous membranes of an oral cavity and a nose lose the natural moisture. Breath becomes bystry and superficial. Considerable loss of liquid can cause serious neurologic problems or lead to death.
It is necessary to see urgently a doctor in the following situations:
1. Symptoms of dehydration are broken.
2. Appetite disturbance.
3. Inadequate diuresis. A terrible sign is absence of a diuresis at the newborn child within 8 hours.
4. Symptoms of dehydration developed at the child to two-month age, are followed by a diarrhea or vomiting.
5. Dizziness, slackness or excessive thirst is observed.
6. There is tachycardia.
7. Dryness of mucous membranes. At the child can not be tears.
8. Blood in a chair or vomiting is found.
At newborns dehydration can develop within several hours after the beginning of a disease. As a rule, for diagnosis of rather physical survey though there are also laboratory symptoms of dehydration. Physical inspection can reveal shock, a cardiopalmus, and/or low arterial pressure. Laboratory analyses, including blood tests (determination of electrolytic balance) and urine (determination of specific weight of urine and creatinine) can be used for assessment of weight of a state.
Reasons of dehydration (dehydration):
Dehydration is a consequence of deficit of water in an organism which occurs at the increased its removal.
Main reasons for dehydration:
- decrease in consumption of liquid
- the increased perspiration
- excessive urination (polyuria)
- diuretics or other drugs which increase liquid losses
- caffeine or alcohol
Decrease in consumption of liquid can be caused by the following reasons:
- the appetite loss connected with an acute disease
- bacterial or viral infection, inflammation of a throat (pharyngitis)
- the oral cavity inflammation caused by a disease, an infection, irritation, ulcers or avitaminosis.
Other conditions which can lead to organism dehydration:
- diseases of adrenal glands which regulate water-salt balance and functions of many bodies and systems
- diabetes mellitus
- frustration of a feeding behavior
- diseases of kidneys
- chronic diseases of lungs.
Treatment of dehydration (dehydration):
dehydration. The scheme of treatment is caused by weight of dehydration. Treatment has to include two stages: a stage of a regidratation and the supporting phase. In a rehydration phase quickly, within 3-4 hours, liquid losses are resumed.
It is not necessary to cancel to the patient meal. Lactose restriction (milk and dairy products), as a rule, is not required, but can be useful at the child with a serious intestinal illness or diarrhea at the exhausted children.
Children with the minimum dehydration at body weight less than 10 kg 60 - 120 ml of solution for a peroral regidratation at each episode of vomiting or diarrhea have to be given. Weighing more than 10 kg give 120-240 ml of such solution. Food should not be limited. Children with slight and moderate dehydration have to receive from 50 to 100 ml of solution for a peroral regidratation on weight kg within 2-4 hours to replace liquid losses. Additional liquid have to be entered to replace the current losses from vomiting and a diarrhea. For portability definition the patient is given solution for an oral regidratation a spoon, the syringe or a pipette. Severe dehydration is the indication to emergency medical service and demands immediate intravenous infusions.
At the moderated and expressed dehydration the patient has to be hospitalized in medical institution. Moderate dehydration can be stopped by peroral administration of liquid, heavy dehydration demands intravenous completion of liquid. If dehydration is caused by vomiting, appointment corresponding drugs is necessary. Nevertheless, at a diarrhea anti-diarrheal drugs are not recommended to children. The patient who is dehydrated because of diabetes of diseases of kidneys, adrenal glands has to receive treatment concerning a basic disease, and also dehydration.
Adults with dehydration of easy degree for completion of losses of liquid should drink clear water. Children in such cases need purpose of solutions for a peroral regidratation. Parents have to follow instructions on the label, giving to children of Pedialyte or other pharmaceutical solutions recommended for stopping of dehydration. Sports drinks are not recommended as they contain a lot of sugar and can aggravate diarrhea.
Precisely to calculate liquid losses, it is important to measure daily the weight of the patient to keep account of episodes of vomiting and diarrhea.
At unavailability of ready solutions to a regidratation it is possible to prepare saline solution independently. It becomes by addition ¼ of a teaspoon of salt and a tablespoon of sugar on water half of liter. Obtaining the necessary amount of electrolytes is very important and therefore preparation of solution in house conditions is extremely undesirable because of an opportunity on mistakes when mixing. Nevertheless, they can be useful in emergency situations.
Easy degrees of dehydration seldom lead to complications. If the cause is removed and losses of liquid are filled, the person quickly recovers. Vomiting and a diarrhea which proceed within several days without adequate completion of liquid losses can be fatal. At the same time, at early diagnosis and therapy of dehydration the forecast positive.
The adequate water relationships of the person helps to prevent dehydration. Parents can avoid dehydration at babies and children who have vomiting or a diarrhea, way of timely completion of liquid. Babies and children with a diarrhea and vomiting have to accept solutions for a peroral regidratation to prevent dehydration.
Adequacy of a water relationships can be estimated on color of urine – normal it has to remain straw color. Water in food stuffs, especially fruit and vegetables, is an excellent source of liquid. Fruit and vegetables may contain up to 95% of water therefore well balanced diet is a good way to avoid dehydration.
Other methods of prevention of dehydration and ensuring adequate consumption of liquid:
- there are first courses (soup) during a lunch;
- to drink more water and juice between meals;
- to hold nearby a glass of water which if necessary can be drunk.
Children should not give coffee or tea because they increase the body temperature and losses of water. Avoid caffeine - the containing soft drinks which also increase risk of dehydration - these drinks are diuretics.