Diarrhea of travelers
- Symptoms of Diarrhea of travelers
- Reasons of Diarrhea of travelers
- Treatment of Diarrhea of travelers
Diarrhea of travelers ("diarrheo turista") — disorder of functions of digestive tract at newcomers in other climatic zone of persons, in particular at tourists. Disturbance of functions of digestive tract is observed in the first 2 weeks after arrival approximately at 1/3 tourists.
Diarrhea still is the most frequent disease of the persons visiting developing countries. From 16 million inhabitants of the industrialized countries which are annually visiting developing countries about 1/3 get sick with diarrhea. Indicators of incidence of diarrhea of travelers considerably vary in the different countries.
Symptoms of Diarrhea of travelers:
Diarrhea of travelers usually begins suddenly with an acute disorder of function of intestines, colicy pains in a stomach, nausea and often slight increase of body temperature. In most cases losses of liquid do not reach big degree, and disease symptoms gradually disappear within 3-5 days.
Reasons of Diarrhea of travelers:
Actually all cases are caused by the microorganisms getting into a human body at the use of food and water contaminated by excrements. Especially big risk is represented by crude vegetables, meat and seafood. As the eurysynusic reason of intestinal infections serves the enterotoxigenic colibacillus responsible for 50-75% of cases of diarrhea. Its different strains in different regions of m Ira can produce both thermolabile, and thermostable toxin, or at the same time that and another. In the majority of other cases also other causative agents of intestinal infections can be allocated, however at the same time big regional differences of indicators of their prevalence are noticeable. For example, in Mexico shigellas cause up to 10% of cases of diarrhea of travelers, but in North Africa they seldom become the reason of this disease. Vibrio parahemolyticus rather often causes diarrhea of travelers in the Japanese tourists visiting Asia, but not South America. In general viruses (rotaviruses, Norfolkpodobny viruses) and protozoa (amoebas, lyambliya) less than in 10% of cases cause this disease.
Pathogeny. The course of a disease is connected with a type of the activator, and in the most part of cases a disease, even caused by shigellas, is usually stopped independently and is not followed by serious effects at earlier healthy faces.
Treatment of Diarrhea of travelers:
Only as a reliable method of prevention serves the refusal of the use of the contaminated waters and foodstuff that it is practically very difficult to execute in most cases at trips to developing countries. In the different countries, according to carefully controlled researches, the essential preventive effect was noted after reception of two antibacterial drugs: doxycycline and Trimethoprimum - sulfamethoxazole (Bactrimum). In this case indicators of incidence managed to be lowered by 50-86%. However, considering possible risk from preventive reception of these drugs and in general the self-stopped course of diarrhea, it is not recommended to appoint them widely. At the same time it is desirable that tourists got medical doses of effective antibacterial drugs to a trip to areas with high risk of a disease in advance and accepted them at once at development of a disease, without using potentially dangerous accidentally bought "drugs for a stomach".