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Dracunculosis, or parasitic worm (from тадж. thread) — the helminthosis from group of nematodoses caused by females of roundworms of Dracunculus medinensis. It is widespread in tropics and subtropics of Africa and Asia. The name a dracunculosis comes from Latin expression "defeat by little dragons". In the beginning of the XX century the disease of a parasitic worm was eurysynusic in many countries of Africa and Asia. According to the available data, in the 1950th years about 50 million cases were registered. Thanks to common efforts of the international community and the endemic countries the number of cases of a parasitic worm decreased almost to 16 000 by 2004. Now the disease of a parasitic worm is widespread only in 11 African countries, including Sudan, Nigeria, Ghana, Mali, Niger and Togo. The insignificant number of cases was also registered in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Mauritania and Ethiopia.

Dracunculosis symptoms:

The main source of infection – the sick person who is most epidemiologically dangerous in the first two weeks after a rupture of a cuticle of helminth and a mass exit of larvae in water. A susceptibility to a dracunculosis general. The person catches at drink of the water supporting the Cyclops struck with parasitic worm larvae. In his stomach a Cyclops perishes, and the larvae released from them get through a stomach wall into an abdominal cavity from where on lymphatic ways - in soft tissues. Approximately in 3 months the female is implemented into hypodermic cellulose or intermuscular connecting fabric where in a year there is its full maturing, at the same time the head end of a mature female approaches skin. In skin bladder-like protrusion with a diameter up to 2-7 cm is formed. In 9-14 months after infection there are allergic phenomena (a small tortoiseshell, suffocation attacks, etc.), and also nausea, vomiting, ponosa, faints. On skin around the place of parasitizing of helminth the bubble is formed. Quite often in this place the parasite is visible. The bubble in several days bursts with education and the subsequent rejection of necrotic weight. The people affected with a disease feel painful pain - as though the leg was filled with a flame. The thermalgia forces people to jump in the reservoirs which often are the only sources of drinking water in communities. At immersion of a leg of the infected person in water, the parasitic worm which is in a leg lays off thousands of larvae. Then larvae are swallowed by the water fleas living in water, and the cycle is started over again - when the person drinks water, it catches a disease. Quite often in 1-2 months prior to emergence of the head end of a parasite from under skin in the place of its stay the hypostasis of fabrics of allergic character which is followed by sharp pains is formed, regional lymphadenitis develops. Most often a parasitic worm are localized in hypodermic cellulose of the lower extremities, sometimes upper, spins, etc. are more rare than a stomach. The bladder-like education formed around the head end of a parasite reminds a furuncle, but without the expressed inflammatory reaction and infiltration around. At a helminth arrangement in blankets of hypodermic cellulose spherical consolidation is palpated. At localization of bladder-like educations in joints the synovitis, a contracture and an anchylosis of joints develop. At accession of consecutive infection abscess, phlegmon can be formed, the gangrenosis of an extremity, sepsis is possible.

Dracunculosis reasons:

The dracunculosis activator - a parasitic worm which is a worm. It is a large nematode (roundworm), Dracunculus medinensis. The female of helminth reaches in length of 32-120 cm at a thickness of 0, 5-1, 7 mm, a male - 12-30 cm and 0, 2-0, 4 mm respectively.

Treatment of the Dracunculosis:

Treatment of a dracunculosis is carried out by careful extraction of a parasite from fabrics with observance of rules of an asepsis. Inside appoint antihistaminic drugs. Use the drugs causing death of a parasite and reducing inflammatory reaction of fabrics - амбильгар, минтезол, ниридазол. At infection with a dracunculosis it is necessary to take root from tetanus, especially if you did not carry out its prevention long ago. Forecast, as a rule, favorable; at a complication can be doubtful.

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