- Reasons of a rinovirusny infection
- Symptoms of a rinovirusny infection
- Treatment of a rinovirusny infection
Rinovirusny infection – the acute infectious disease caused by the viruses affecting preferential mucous a nose with slabotekushchy intoxication.
The activator is carried to family of picornaviruses (the Spanish pico-small, with English RNA - RNA) because of the small sizes, availability of RNA and lack of an external cover. The last fact does it rather unstable in external environment and quickly giving in to an inactivation at action of adverse factors. There is no general group antigen as, for example, at a parainfluenza, each serotype (type of viruses from this family) possesses the virus neutralizing and complement-linked antigen (i.e. on each type of a virus, the organism tries to allocate the type of antibodies).
Are rather unstable in external environment, are especially quickly inactivated in acid medium of a stomach, quickly perish at heating / drying / action of disinfectants, but are steady at subzero temperatures and rather long time, i.e. is closer to 0C for them more perniciously, than negative temperatures, are also steady against ethers.
Reasons of a rinovirusny infection:
Source – the sick person or a virus carrier. A way of transfer - airborne, contact (a direct touch) or contact and household (through use objects). Flashes develop in cold and crude season (fall and spring) therefore have dvukhvolnovy character and arises more often in the small closed collectives, such as family, kindergartens. The susceptibility is high, all age groups get sick. Also height of a susceptibility will depend on a premorbidal background, that is the existence of risk factors, the immune status contacting to the patient and from contact duration time.
Symptoms of a rinovirusny infection:
Incubation interval (from the virion implementation moment, before the first clinical manifestations) 1-5 days. Entrance gate for virion is mucous nasal cavities, and the inflammation center which is followed by catarral manifestations on the expiration of incubatory term and the beginning of a prodromal stage exactly there forms: the gradual beginning with rise in temperature to 38C, chilling, swelled mucous a nose, hypersecretion (plentiful allocation from a nose at first mucous, and in several days – more dense) and the accruing intoxication symptoms, with the subsequent weak current.
Also, as well as at other SARS, from the first hours the catarral phenomena appear: sneezing, irritation in a throat and difficulty of nasal breath. Wings of a nose are hyperemic (red) and skin of a matserirovan on them (is shelled), especially in anticipation of a nose. The injetsirovannost of vessels of a conjunctiva and scleras is observed, i.e. small vessels on an eye white, as after long sitting behind the monitor), followed by dacryagogue begin to be seen.
In summing up: the main target tissue for rhinoviruses is mucous puffiness of a nose therefore to the forefront there will be a hyperemia, mucous with plentiful are separated, a hyperemia of wings of a nose and a peeling of skin in anticipation of a nose; and because of anatomic connectivity of the lacrimonasal channel with the lower nasal sink, the virus quickly gets into outside structures of organs of sight therefore there is a response from scleras and a conjunctiva.
1. Objectively and as a result of poll – the expressed rhinitis, with moderate intoxication (i.e. a moderate indisposition, low temperature).
2. The virologic method with capture of material from the washouts of a nose collected in 1 day or not later 5 – in these biological materials is found the activator.
3. Serological methods – the neutralization test (NT) – detection of high-quality and quantitative definition of the activator and counteracting factors (antibodies, antitoxins)
4. the general analyses (OAK and OAM) of a maloinformativna will also indicate only a picture of an inflammation (OAK), or a complication/decompensation from a renal lokhanochnoy of system (OAM)
Usually rinovirusny infection is not differentiated with other SARS, that is make the diagnosis to a SARS and treat also, as well as other SARS.
Treatment of a rinovirusny infection:
Because of similar symptoms with other SARS the choice is made in favor of shirokospektorny virotsidny drugs, uzkospektorny it is possible and it is necessary to apply only after confirmation of the estimated diagnosis. At all respiratory infections (flu, a parainfluenza, RSI, rinovirusny, adenoviral, enteroviral and koronovirusny infections) the principle of treatment is identical.
1. The causal treatment (directed against the activator):
- Arbidol (inhibits merge of viruses to epithelial cells). It is shown from 2 years, from 2-6 years on 2 tablets a day to food, from 6-12 years on 4 tablets, from 12 years – on 8 таб. To accept to food within 5 days.
- Ribavirin (виразол). It is appointed to children 12 years in a dose 10мг/кг/сут, within 5-7 days are more senior
- Izoprinozin. 50 mg/kg and the received dose to divide into 3 receptions within 10 days, to accept after food.
- For topical administration Oxolinic ointment intanazalno (in a nose), Bonafton, Lokferon.
2. Interferona – the immunomodulators having universal virotsidny properties, т.к they suppress reproduction of viruses, and also stimulate immunological reactions of an organism.
- Интерферон-α on 5 drops each 30 minutes within 4 hours, in the next days – on 5 times a day within 5 - 7 days
- Viferon in candles – on 2 candles a day
3. Inductors of an interferonogenez – immunostimulators.
- Tsikloferon. Since 4-6 years on 1 tablet, 7-11 years – on 2 tablets, the adult on 3 tablets.
- Anaferon. Appoint to children from the 6th monthly age: in the first days 4 tablets, after – on 1 tablet 3 times a day. Course of 5 days.
4. Symptomatic treatment:
febrifugal (Ibuprofen, Nurofen),
antibechic are appointed taking into account the nature of cough and its localization (at laryngitis at the time of a parainfluenza - Sinekod, Stoptusin, Tusuprexum if process went down below and cough gained other character, then appoint expectorating, Mucolyticums),
antiinflammatory – Erespal,
from cold carry out washings – Akvamaris or weak saline solution,
for puffiness removal – Pinosol or Ksilen.
If treatment does not give positive dynamics within 3 days and temperature reaching critical figures continues to rise, then having consulted to the doctor, pass to treatment with antibiotics.
The drugs used for treatment, but in preventive dosages.
Arbidol since 2-6 years on ½ tablets in 30 minutes prior to or after food, up to 12 years – on 1 tablet, after 12 years – on 2 tablets. A reception course – 2 weeks.
Интерферон-α. You part an ampoule with warm water to a tag and you gather a pipette, after that you dig in 2-3 times a day in a nose, trying to get on a back wall of a throat, there concentration of an adenoid tissue, but not on a ridge of the nose.
Tsikloferon, Ekhinotsey - the same immunat, but is cheaper. Add several drops to tea.
Also it is necessary to isolate patients of 7-14 days. Double wet cleaning with disinfectants is carried out. For the patient separate ware is allocated. Good prevention of viral and bacterial diseases is the full-fledged breakfast, т.к thus antibodies are activated and there is an easy sensitization of an organism to alien agents. There is no specific prevention in the form of vaccination –.