- Sporotrichosis symptoms
- Sporotrichosis reasons
- Treatment of the Sporotrichosis
Sporotrichosis (Sporotrichosis, Schenck a disease, Beurmann a disease, a disease of gardeners, ринокладиоз) - the chronic infectious disease of skin and superficial lymph nodes caused by different types of filamentous mushrooms of sporotrikhum (Sporothrix schenckii).
Infection occurs at hit of Sporothrix schenckii in hypodermic cellulose at small injuries. Foresters, gardeners, sellers of flowers catch a sporotrichosis at contact with a sphagnum, roses and other plants. The infection can develop only in the place of implementation of the activator (a sporotrikhozny chancre) or to extend on absorbent vessels (a lymphatic sporotrichosis). Most often extremities are surprised, out of their limits process extends seldom. The possibility of hematogenous dissimination of the activator from the skin center is not proved. Infection atriums at other forms of a sporotrichosis - bone and joint, pulmonary and other. are not established. Apparently, them are lungs.
Without treatment the sporotrichosis gets a chronic current, only occasionally coming to an end independently. The granulematozny inflammation with existence of epithelial and colossal cells is characteristic. Inflammatory infiltrate contains accumulations of neutrophils.
The sporotrichosis is most often shown by damage of skin, damage of bones, damage of joints and pneumonia. At a lymphatic sporotrichosis, the most frequent form of a disease, in the place of implementation of the activator almost painless lilac papule or a node appears. Within the next weeks similar nodes are formed on the course of the draining absorbent vessel. From them a small amount of pus is periodically allocated; the ulceration is possible. This picture - dense knotty тяж on the course of absorbent vessel - is very characteristic of a sporotrichosis. Nevertheless similar damage is caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and Mycobacterium marinum, is more rare - Leishmania braziliensis and Mycobacterium kansasii.
At a sporotrikhozny chancre in the place of implementation of the activator the painless granuloma in the form of a papule or a node is formed.
At a bone and joint sporotrichosis monoarthritis or polyarthritis which slowly progresses for many months and years develops. Usually elbow, knee, radiocarpal, ankle joints suffer, is more rare - small joints of brushes and feet. There is circumarticular an osteoporosis seen on the roentgenogram. In joints the fistular courses sometimes form. At polyarthritis hematogenous dissimination of the activator in skin is possible, however any of the secondary skin centers does not give further lymphogenous distribution of the activator.
Immunity easing, including HIV infection, increases risk of hematogenous dissimination.
At a pulmonary sporotrichosis the center of defeat is usually presented by a single cavity in an upper lung lobe. Chronically current meningitis, even for lack of damage of skin and lungs is possible. From spinal Sporothrix schenckii it is difficult to allocate.
Sporothrix schenckii lives on plants in many parts of the globe. They grow on the remains of plants, in the soil and on bark of trees, bushes, and garden plants. The mold is found on acute thorns of roses and a hawthorn, on a mulch, hay, sphagnum mosses, branches of rotten trees. Activators of a sporotrichosis are revealed in domestic and wild mammals. In veterinary science most often carriers are cats and horses. Cats have especially severe forms of a skin sporotrichosis.
The sporotrichosis is shown in formation of multiple abscesses and ulcerations, affecting mainly skin and hypodermic cellulose, lymph nodes, muscles, lungs, bones and internals are surprised less often. People, animals, insects are ill a sporotrichosis. Meets everywhere, except for polar regions, and it is most widespread in tropics and subtropics. Men are ill more often than women. It is connected with features of professional activity and smaller care of men, in comparison with women. In the developed countries of the world infection, as a rule, in occurs at adults. The greatest risk of a disease is connected with agriculture, gardening, gardening, gathering berries, gardenings and carpentry. The infection is most widespread in our professional environment among gardeners who work with roses, other injuring plants, employees of the nurseries working with mosses, hay and the soil. It is an occupational disease of farmers, gardeners and flower growers.
Frequency of diseases from 1 to 2 cases on one million people in the USA, in underdeveloped countries can reach 1:1000. People with the weakened immune system are subject to a disease first of all.
Treatment of the Sporotrichosis:
At skin forms of a sporotrichosis appoint saturated solution of potassium iodide inside, daily raising a dose (at adults - to 4,5-9 ml/days) depending on portability. Gastrointestinal disturbances and acneform rashes in an upper body and on a face are quite often observed, nevertheless it is necessary to continue treatment to a full rassasyvaniye of the center of an infection and 1 more month. It is possible to use итраконазол, 100-200 mg/days inside. Drug is effective and is well transferred. At visceral forms of a sporotrichosis iodides are ineffective. More than a half of such cases manages to be cured Amphotericinum In (in/in). It is sometimes effective итраконазол, 200-400 mg/days inside.
Forecast. If on site even a small injury, a cut or a prick quickly extending area of reddening, pain and heat around a wound arises an acute thorn of a plant, it is necessary immediately will see a doctor, having warned him about a possibility of a fungal infection.
The sporotrichosis - a benign disease and at timely diagnosis and full treatment can be in most cases cured within several weeks. The forecast is always serious at a sporotrichosis of internals, lungs, bones.