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Transcervical (trench) fever


Trench fever (synonym: the Volynsk, five-day, trench fever, a paroxysmal rickettsiosis) is the acute infectious disease which is characterized by the sudden beginning, short repeated attacks of fever and muscular pains of various localization.

Symptoms of Transcervical (trench) fever:

Incubation interval — 9 — 17 days. The disease begins sharply, with a fever and bystry rise in temperature to 39 — 40 ° above. The temperature curve is more often than paroxysmal (recurrent) type. Temperature of 1 — 3 day keeps, then decreases to normal within 3 — 7 days. Total number of attacks of fever usually 2 — 5, sometimes to 12. Tifoidny and rudimentary types of fever are possible. Tifoidny fever of usually remittiruyushchy or intermittent type lasting up to 12 — 16 days. At easy forms of a disease the rudimentary type with insignificant and short-term temperature increase can be observed. In the first three days of a disease single roseolas can appear on skin. Severe headaches, gastrocnemius and other muscle pains and in joints without change of their form are constantly noted; pains also in tibial bones and edges are possible. The injection of vessels of scleras and a conjunctiva, a hyperemia of the person are characteristic. The spleen is often increased. A leukocytosis to 10 000 — 20 000 with band shift to the left. Disease is favorable; average duration of 3 — 6 weeks. Recovery occurs slowly.
The diagnosis of trench fever  is based on a clinical picture of a disease taking into account the epidemiological anamnesis.

Reasons of Transcervical (trench) fever:

The causative agent of trench fever — a rickettsia. Rickettsiae on a surface of epithelial cells of digestive tract of louses breed and  are constantly allocated  with excrements.
Epidemiology. A source of an infection is only the sick person; a carrier — a clothes louse. Infection of the person occurs owing to hit of excrements of the louse infected from the sick person in the superficial wounds which are formed when combing skin in places of its sting. Separate cases meet in various parts of the globe, under unfavorable conditions (wars, hunger, etc.) epidemics are possible.
Pathogeny. In a pathogeny of trench fever much in common with a sapropyra and other rickettsioses. At hit in an organism the infection gets into a blood flow, affects preferential an endothelium of capillaries, small arteries and veins. Intoxication and toksikoallergichesky reactions causing disorder of nervnoreflektorny regulation of functions of an organism are of great importance in a pathogeny of trench fever. Immunity after a disease short-term and unstable.

Treatment of Transcervical (trench) fever:

Appoint antibiotics of a tetracycline row in the standard dosages within 6 — 7 days and symptomatic means (analginum, pyramidon, Cordiaminum, caffeine  , etc.).
Prevention. Hospitalization of patients is obligatory. Recovering write out at normal body temperature not earlier than for the 12th day after the last attack. Carry out disinsection in the center, and also actions for the prevention of a household pediculosis.

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