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Poisoning with compounds of bismuth


Poisonings with bismuth — the disorders of health connected with excess intake of bismuth in an organism.

Symptoms of Poisoning with compounds of bismuth:

Direct dependence between weight of neurologic symptoms and level of metal in blood and urine is revealed. Improvement of the general state, disappearance of bismuthic impregnation of skin and mucous membranes, reduction of frequency and force of clonic spasms quickly follow falling of level B. in blood, but recovery of mental disturbances proceeds more slowly. Increase in concentration of V. in blood is followed by falling of activity of ceruloplasmin.
Professional poisonings during the work with V. and its connections are not known. Inspection working at sites of discharge of cast iron where V.'s maintenance fluctuated from 0,03 to 8 mg/m3, found only symptoms of chronic poisoning WITH. It must be kept in mind that some salts B. may contain lead and arsenic in the form of impurity. Long (2 years) use of drugs B. with the medical purpose led to coloring of skin in gray color. Long peroral intake of insoluble inorganic salts B. in the doses exceeding 1 g a day can lead to mental disorders with the phenomena of confusion of consciousness, a disease of muscular system (myoclonia), frustration of motive system (balance loss), dysarthtias. These phenomena connect with V.'s accumulation in nerve centers which begins to prove at exceeding of level of contents it in blood over 50 mkg/l. In most cases bismuthic encephalopathy gradually passes without medicamentous intervention in terms from 10 to 60 days after the termination of its introduction to an organism.

Reasons of Poisoning with compounds of bismuth:

Century also contents it in crust belongs to scattered elements, it is preferential in breeds, does not exceed 2·10–5  % at Clark of 0,009·10-4%. Main natural minerals: native V., Bi2S3 bismuthinite, Bi2O3 bismite, Bi2CO3 (OH) 4 bismutite, Bi2TeS tetradymite, Pb2Bi2S5 (Kovalsky) kozamit. The maintenance of the dissolved forms B. in the World Ocean makes 27,4 million tons at the average content of 0,02 mg/l. Water of the rivers of the USSR contains 0,022 mg/l (Dobrovolsky). Sea water contains about 0,2 mkg/l of V., in the soil of 1 mg/kg in sandy breeds and from 0,1 to 3 mg/kg in rocks (Fowler, Vouk). In the USA V.'s concentration in atmospheric air makes 0,002–0,03 mkg/m3 (Roshchin). In air of the cities contents fluctuates in the range of 1–66 ¡ú/m3, in rural areas — 10 times less.
It is applied in nuclear reactors as the heat carrier century; in devices for measurement of tension of magnetic field; in the alloys used in automatic fire extinguishers; as solder; for receiving difficult castings in plaster molds; for safety locks in steam-power installations.

Treatment of Poisoning with compounds of bismuth:

At acute poisoning plentiful drink, absorbent carbon, D-Penicillaminum, symptomatic treatment.

Drugs, drugs, tablets for treatment of Poisoning with compounds of bismuth:

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