- Stibialism symptoms
- Stibialism reasons
- Treatment of the Stibialism
Antimony - silver-white metal. It is applied in various alloys (typographical, antifriction, babbits). Antimony oxides (antimonous anhydride and antimonial anhydride) are applied to production of fire-resistant textile products, fire-resistant paints, meet in air of production rooms when melting antimony. Potassium antimonyltartrate (an emetic stone) - colourless crystals. It is applied as medicine and as pickle in textile production. Sulfides and chlorides of antimony are applied to coloring of metal products, when curing rubber etc. Antimony fluoride - colourless crystals, is applied in the textile industry. - 0,5 mg/m3, for fluorides and chlorides (in terms of Sb) - 0,3 mg/m3, for trivalent having oxidized maximum allowable concentration for dust of metal antimony also sulfides in the form of dust (in terms of Sb) - 1 mg/m3, for pentavalent oxides and sulfides in the form of dust (in terms of Sb) - 2 mg/m3.
At impact of compounds of antimony in the form of vapors the irritation of mucous membranes of eyes (possibly defeat of a cornea) and upper respiratory tracts is observed. Inhalation of smoke of the oxides of antimony (which are formed in the course of melting or at combustion of antimonial paints) causes a symptom complex of metal fever. At hit of compounds of antimony in a stomach (household poisonings with an emetic stone, the food or drinks which are stored in the enameled ware glazed by antimonial enamel are possible) the phenomena similar to symptoms of acute food toxicoinfection are observed.
Inflammatory diseases of a nasopharynx and trachea, preferential atrophic character, bronchitis and conjunctivitis, stomatitises, emergence of a bluish border on gingivas, gastrointestinal frustration (lack of appetite, locks or ponosa, etc.), functional disturbances of the central nervous system (sleeplessness, headaches, irritability, dizzinesses, the general weakness), a diencephalic syndrome. Polyneurites, damage of a cardiac muscle, arterial hypotonia are possible.
Antimonial dust at long inhalation can cause a disease of lungs - a pneumoconiosis (антимопокониоз), preferential intersticial form with the expressed sklerozirovaniye of radical lymph nodes, not progressing after the termination of contact with antimony dust.
At workers of antimonial steel works frequent frustration of a menstrual cycle, and also disturbance of genital function (spontaneous abortions in late durations of gestation, etc.) and lag of children in growth are revealed.
At the workers occupied on melting of metal antimony skin diseases with the phenomena of an itch, an erythema, a xeroderma (crack), pustular rash, the eczemas localized on the head, a face, a pas bends of joints (are frequent at penetration of dust under clothes).
In blood - moderate anemia, a leukocytosis, an eosinophilia. In urine protein quite often is defined.
Antimony and its connections come to an organism mainly through a respiratory organs. Antimony is laid in a liver, in skin and in hair. Compounds of trivalent antimony are allocated preferential with digestive tract, compounds of pentavalent antimony - kidneys. Render irritant action on integuments, mucous membranes of eyes, upper respiratory tracts and a digestive tract (at hit in a stomach); strike the central and peripheral nervous system, a cardiac muscle.
Treatment of the Stibialism:
At acute inhalation poisoning - alkaline inhalations, plentiful drink of warm sweet tea or coffee, acetylsalicylic acid, pyramidon. At acute peroral poisonings - repeated gastric lavages solution of a tannin, proteinaceous water. Mucous drinks, warm milk. Enemas from broth of a linen seed with opium tincture addition (10 drops). At severe vomiting - to swallow of ice pieces, subcutaneously morphine. According to indications - cardiovascular means, intravenously - isotonic solution of sodium of chloride, glucose. As antidote Unithiolum, apparently, effective is applied only at poisonings with trivalent compounds of antimony.