Backbone pain (dorsodynia)
- Reasons of pain in a backbone (dorsodynia)
Backbone pains are among the most widespread clinical disturbances. The changes capable to cause a pain syndrome are very various. In most cases precisely it is not possible to identify the mechanism of its emergence.
Backbone - the most important part of our body. It helps us to move, to freely turn the head and a trunk separately from each other, to move hands. A backbone - the trunk bearing on itself all organism.
It is correct to perform so important functions to a backbone its structure allows. The basic concept is the vertebral and motive segment - connection of two adjacent vertebrae interacting with the help of a disk, intervertebral joints, the copular device and muscles.
It need to one of components for any reason to fail, work of all backbone is broken. At an initial stage of all diseases of a backbone of people feels discomfort and feels pain.
Reasons of pain in a backbone (dorsodynia):
Backbone pain - the clinical syndrome caused by a set of the reasons.
Dystrophic damages of a backbone are the most frequent reason of pains in a backbone:
- osteochondrosis with defeat of intervertebral disks and the surfaces of bodies of vertebrae, adjacent to them;
- the spondylosis which is shown arthrosis of dugootroschasty and/or facet joints;
- Osteochondrosis. The term "osteochondrosis" means dystrophic process of a joint cartilage and the subject bone tissue. All departments of a backbone are subject to osteochondrosis, but more pathological process is expressed, as a rule, in lower cervical, upper chest and lower lumbar departments of a backbone. Feature of osteochondrosis is the width of its distribution - degenerative dystrophic damage of a backbone by 40 years is found practically in all people.
Initial display of osteochondrosis is pain in the struck department of a backbone. Pain can be or rather constant, as a lyumbalgiya (long pains in lumbosacral area), or to have character of a lumbago - a lumbago. In the subsequent in process of progressing of pathological process dominance of pain in this or that department of a backbone is observed. Strengthening of pain at exercise stresses, long motionless or slow-moving situation, stay in an inconvenient pose, a sensation of discomfort is characteristic. Further development of osteochondrosis can lead to the expressed deformation of a backbone as a kyphosis, a lordosis or scoliosis.
Numerous and various neurologic disturbances which expressiveness depends on a disease stage (an aggravation or remission) are typical for osteochondrosis. At the uncomplicated course of osteochondrosis the periods of quite long remission when symptoms of a disease are not expressed are observed. Emergence of an acute pain in the relevant department of a backbone with the subsequent irradiation in a hand, a waist or a leg is characteristic of an acute stage.
- The lumbago arises at the awkward or sharp movement, heavy lifting and is followed by the sudden pain like "lumbago" lasting for several minutes or seconds, or "tearing" and the throbbing pain in a backbone amplifying at cough and sneezing. The lumbago causes restriction of mobility in lumbar department of a backbone, the "anesthetizing" pose, flattening of a lordosis or kyphosis. Tendon jerks are kept, sensitivity is not broken. Backbone pain proceeds from several hours to several days.
- Lyumbalgiya arises after a considerable exercise stress, a long inconvenient pose, jolty driving, overcooling. Clinically is followed by the dull aching ache in a backbone amplifying at a body postural change (bending, sitting, walking). Pain can extend to a buttock and a leg. Changes of a statics are expressed to a lesser extent, than at a lumbago. The movements in lumbar department are complicated, but restriction is insignificant. Morbidity at palpation of acanthas and interspinal sheaves at the level of defeat is defined. At an inclination back pain disappears, at an inclination the sharp muscle tension of a back is noted forward. Knee jerks and reflexes from heelstrings are kept. Process often wears a subacute or chronic uniform.
- The hernia nuclei pulposi of a disk is a rupture of a disk of a backbone from an overload, disturbances of its food or an injury. As a result of a rupture of an external fibrous ring of an intervertebral disk to the vertebral canal its internal contents are stuck out (a pulpozny kernel, representing jellylike weight with a diameter of 2 - 2,5 cm, surrounded with a dense cartilaginous ring). The stuck-out part of a disk can restrain nerves and vessels of a spinal cord that is shown by backbone pain and other disturbances.
- Instability of a backbone represents pathological mobility in a vertebral segment. It can be either increase in amplitude of normal movements, or emergence of new degrees of freedom of movements, uncharacteristic for norm.
The main symptom of instability of a backbone is backbone pain or discomfort in a neck. In cervical department of a backbone at patients with instability in an atlantooktsipitalny joint irritativny pain can have periodic character and amplify after an exercise stress. Pain is the reason of chronic reflex tension of cervical muscles. At children instability is the reason of development of an acute wryneck. At the beginning of a disease there is a raised tone of juxtaspinal muscles which leads to their overfatigue. In muscles there are microcirculation disturbances, development of a hypotrophy and decrease in a tone. There is a feeling of uncertainty at the movements in a neck. Ability to maintain usual loading is broken. There is a need for means of an additional immobilization of a neck up to support of the head hands.
In a spozvonochnik treat more rare reasons of pains:
- the inborn defects of a backbone which are shown in the different number of vertebras, most often in lumbar department.
The speech can go or about excess lumbar vertebrae (the I sacral vertebra turns into the VI lumbar, so-called lumbalization of sacral department of a backbone) or about their shortcoming (the V lumbar vertebra turns into the I sacral - a sacralization);
- the spondylosis and a spondylolisthesis - are about defect in an interarticular part of a handle of a vertebra which in case of full separation of handles (spondylosis) and bilateral localization can lead to shift of a body of the injured vertebra (spondylolisthesis) forward;
- an ankylosing spondylarthritis (Bekhterev's disease) – the painful inflammation of a backbone beginning in sacrolumbar joints;
- osteoporosis happens the reason of pains in a backbone at women (during monthly) and at elderly people. Bodies of vertebrae at this disease have the lowered density of a bone tissue in this connection in the presence of pressure there is their deformation to a wedge-shaped form or to a shape of a so-called fish vertebra (the increased poles on the upper and lower surfaces of bodies of vertebrae);
- backbone pains can be caused also by tumoral processes. Most often metastasises of tumors of bodies of a thorax, including lungs, prostatic and thyroid glands, kidneys happen them;
- the infectious damage of a backbone (most often the staphylococcal nature) connected with hit in blood and transfer of the infectious agent from the center in easy or urinogenital bodies. One more infection which affected a backbone especially in former years, is tuberculosis;
- the backbone pains caused by a disease of internals. At women is these are most often gynecologic diseases - changes of position of a uterus, a cyst, an inflammation and a tumor of ovaries.
Prostate diseases, infection of urethras and stones in a bladder can be the reasons of dorsodynias also;
- in certain cases dorsodynias are a consequence of the psychosomatic reaction meaning that some patients have the depression nervous stresses, neurosises to the area of a backbone and feel them in the form of pain there. In these cases of pain in a backbone can be result of the psychological defense reactions connected with the raised muscular exercise. The felt pain in turn strengthens a depressive and neurotic state, and the general situation even more worsens, difficulties are fixed and become chronic.