Infections, sexually transmitted
- Ways of transfer
- Treatment of infections, sexually transmitted
The Disease, Sexually Transmitted (D,ST) or the infection, sexually transmitted (I,ST) (English Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs/STD) — understand infectious diseases as these terms, the most frequent way of infection which is sexual.
Infections, preferential sexually transmitted, in domestic medicine it is accepted to allocate in group of venereal diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, донованоз, a venereal ulcer). Other STD are often transmitted also in other ways: parenteral (HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C), airborne (fever Ebola), to straight lines contact (mange), vertical (clamidiosis, HIV).
To infectious diseases, sexually transmitted belong:
bacterial infections: inguinal granuloma (донованоз), venereal ulcer, syphilis, venereal lymphogranuloma, clamidiosis, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis;
viral infections: The HIV, genital herpes, sharp-pointed condylomas caused by a papillomavirus of the person, hepatitis B, a cytomegalovirus (герпесвирус the person type 5), a contagious mollusk, Kaposha's Sarcoma (herpes type 8);
protozoan infections: trichomoniasis;
fungal infection: candidiasis (milkwoman);
parasitic diseases: фтириаз, mange;
Such diseases as candidosis colpitis, the nonspecific urethritis and bacterial vaginoses caused by opportunistic and saprophytic microflora do not belong to diseases, sexually transmitted, but quite often are considered in total with them (and are mistakenly ranked by nonspecialists as them).
Inguinal granuloma (Latin granuloma inguinale) — the infectious disease caused by bacteria of a type of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
Venereal ulcer (Latin Ulcus Molle) — an infectious disease, sexually transmitted. A disease-producing factor is Haemophilus ducreyi bacterium. The disease is widespread mainly in Africa, Central and South America. In Russia meets extremely seldom.
Syphilis (устар.: люэс) — the chronic general venereal infectious disease with the damage of skin, mucous membranes, internals, bones, a nervous system with consecutive change of stages of a disease caused by bacteria of a type of Treponema pallidum (a pale treponema) of pallidum subspecies, relating to a sort a treponema (Treponema) (From other - Greek — I turn, νῆμα — thread) the Spirochaetaceae families (From other - Greek — a curl, — long hair).
Venereal lymphogranuloma (Durant-Nicolas-Favra's disease) — a chronic disease, sexually transmitted. The activator are invasive serovars of L1, L2 and L3 Chlamydia trachomatis. It is characterized by specific damage of inguinal, femoral, ileal and deep pelvic lymph nodes.
Clamidiosis — an infectious disease, sexually transmitted, caused by chlamydias (Chlamydia trachomatis). Is one of the most widespread infectious diseases, sexually transmitted. Statistically annually with clamidiosis in the world 100 million people get sick, and the number of the people infected with chlamydias on all globe according to the most conservative estimates reaches one billion. According to WHO data and numerous domestic and foreign researchers, urogenital clamidiosis is one of the most widespread diseases, sexually transmitted therefore the serious problem for modern venereology is represented by search of the most effective remedies of treatment of so-called not gonococcal inflammatory diseases of bodies of urinogenital system.
Gonorrhea (from other - Greek "semen" and ῥέω "I flow") — the infectious disease caused by a gram-negative diplococcus — gonokokky lat. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Sexually transmitted and characterized by damage of mucous membranes of urinogenital bodies. Treats venereal diseases. At gonorrhea mucous membranes most often of a genital tract are surprised, but can be surprised mucous a rectum, a conjunctiva (in that case the disease is called бленнорея).
Ureaplasmosis — the disease caused by the specific microorganism of Ureaplasma urealyticum (an ureaplasma уреалитикум) relating to the Gram-negative microbes deprived of a cell wall. The infection can get into a human body at the birth from sick mother: microbes can get into a genital tract of the child at the time of delivery and remain there all life, being in an inactive state. So, at inspection of children colonization of a vagina ureaplasmas comes to light at 5%.
HIV — the human immunodeficiency virus causing a disease — HIV infection which last stage is known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) — unlike a congenital immunodeficiency disorder.
Virus of a herpes simplex of the second type (English Herpes simplex virus 2, HSV-2, Human herpesvirus 2) — a type of family of viruses of herpes of Herpesviridae, infections of genitalias (genital herpes) causing in the person. This virus is neyrotrofny and neuroinvasive, that is after infection migrates in a nervous system. The virus is especially dangerous to people with the weakened immune system, for example to HIV-positive people, and also to those who underwent recently an operation on organ transplantation as the medicines used at transplantation suppress immune system.
Sharp-pointed condylomas — a kind of condylomas represent small outgrowths of corporal color which can appear on generative organs, around an anus, sometimes in a mouth. As a rule they are caused by the viral infection caused by the activator — the virus of papilloma of the person (VPP).
Papillomavirus of the person (HPV — Human Papillomavirus) — a virus from a sort of papillomaviruses, families of Papova viruses. It is transferred only from the person to the person and leads to change of nature of growth of fabrics. More than 100 types of VPCh are known. From them more than 40 — can cause damage to an anogenitalny path (generative organs and an anus) of men and women and emergence of sharp-pointed condylomas. Some of them are harmless, others cause warts, some cause cancer.
Hepatitis B — a viral disease which causative agent is the hepatitis B virus (in special literature "GV virus", VGV or HBV can designate it) from family of gepadnavirus. The virus differs in extremely high resistance to various physical and chemical factors: to low and high temperatures (including to boiling), to repeated freezing and thawing, long influence of acid medium. In external environment at the room temperature the virus of hepatitis B can remain up to several weeks: even in the dried-up and imperceptible spot of blood, on a razor edge, the end of a needle. In blood serum at a temperature of +30 °C infectivity of a virus remains within 6 months, at -20 °C about 15 years. It is inactivated when autoclaving within 30 minutes, sterilization by dry heat at a temperature of 160 °C within 60 minutes, warming up at 60 °C within 10 hours.
Cytomegalovirus (English Cytomegalovirus, CMV) — a sort of viruses of family of gerpesvirus (Herpesviridae). The scientific name is formed from other - Greek — a cell + — big + lat. virus — poison. The representative of the sort Human herpesvirus 5 (HCMV-5, or герпесвирус the person type 5) is capable to infect people causing in them the Cytomegaly.
Contagious mollusk (new lat. molluscum contagiosum) represents the skin disease caused by one of viruses of group of smallpox. Usually skin, sometimes — mucous membranes is surprised. Most often the infection arises at children aged from one up to ten years. The infection is transmitted at direct contact with the patient or through the contaminated use objects. In a typical case the viral infection at adults leads to education on external genitals, hips, buttocks or the lower part of a stomach of the small knots raised over the surface of skin. They have semi-spherical shape. On color match normal coloring of skin or slightly turning pink it. In the middle of a hemisphere there is impression, something reminding a human navel. The size of these painless defeats appearing usually 3-6 weeks later after infection varies from 1 mm to 1 cm in the diameter; they have pinkish-orange coloring with a nacreous top. When pressing on a small knot from it as from an eel, the curdled stopper is allocated. Most often the contagious mollusk does not cause serious troubles and disappears in itself approximately within 6 months; therefore treatment is required not in all cases.
Kaposchi's sarcoma (Kaposchi's angiosarcoma) represents multiple malignant new growths of a derma (skin). It is for the first time described by the Hungarian dermatologist Moritz Kaposchi and called by his name.
Trichomoniasis wins first place on prevalence among diseases of an urinogenital path. Besides, trichomoniasis holds superiority and among diseases, sexually transmitted. According to World Health Organization (1999), 10% of the population of the globe have trichomoniasis. Trichomoniasis is annually registered at about 170 million people. The activator — a vulval trichomonad (Trichomonas vaginalis).
Trichomoniasis is dangerous first of all by serious consequences in the form of complications which can be the cause of infertility, pathology of pregnancy and to volume of similar. The main habital of trichomoniasis in a male body — an urethra, a prostate gland and seed bubbles, in women's — a vagina. However at the first hit in an organism of a trichomonad always cause an urethritis. Infection occurs sexually at contact with the patient or the carrier of an infection. The incubation interval makes 1-4 weeks.
Candidiasis (milkwoman) — one of kinds of a fungal infection, is caused by microscopic drozhzhepodobny mushrooms of the sort Candida (Candida albicans). All representatives of this sort are carried to opportunistic.
Sort microorganisms Candida are a part of normal microflora of a mouth, vagina and large intestine of most of healthy people. The disease is caused not just by existence of mushrooms of the sort Candida, and their reproduction in a large number, and/or hit of more pathogenic strains of a mushroom. Most often candidiasis arises at decrease in the general and local immunity.
Ftiriaz (pubic pediculosis; lat. Pediculosis pubis, Phthiriasis) — an entomosis, the parasitic venereal disease of skin caused by a pubic louse.
Mange (Latin scabies) — an infectious skin disease, акариаз from group of an acariasis, caused by a microscopic parasite — an itch mite or scabby zudny (Latin Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). The name of the activator happens from other - Greek σάρξ (meat, pulp), (to gnaw, torment, cut) also lat. (to comb) scabere. Characteristic symptoms of a disease are the itch and papulovezikulezny rash, is frequent with accession of secondary pustulous elements owing to infection when combing. The word "mange" is single-root with the verb "scratch".
Ways of transfer:
The main feature of STD is rather high susceptibility of activators to environment conditions, need of direct contact for infection with the activator is a consequence of what.
The World Health Organization in "The global strategy of prevention of infections, sexually transmitted, and fight against them for 2006 — 2011" allocates a concept of the "safe sexual behavior" including:
Correct and systematic use of male and female condoms
Correct use of local microbicides
Periodic inspection by means of syndromic or laboratory diagnosis
In case of diagnosing of an infection (or suspicions on its existence) specialized treatment
Notification of sexual partners
Vaccinal prevention against oncogenous viruses of hepatitis B and a papillomavirus of the person
The group of venereal STD is given at the unprotected sexual contact (including oral and genital forms). Kisses, oral and sexual contact and use of sexual toys, such as vibrators, the risk of infection repeatedly raises at the sexual intercourse protected by means of condom.
For STD in broad understanding of this group other ways of transfer are possible. In particular, it is possible to catch a virus of papilloma of the person at close household contact, the vulval trichomonad can keep a long time the infectious properties in the wet environment (wet towels, smooth surfaces). The causative agent of itch or a pubic louse can be transmitted in the contact and household way through use objects. The vertical way of transmission of infection means infection of the child with mother or father. Also parenteral ways of transfer are characteristic of HIV infection and hepatitises B, C.
For diagnosis survey of the patient, identification of clinical symptoms (an urodynia, allocations from generative organs) and the analysis of smears and samples of blood is used. Physical symptoms (pain, allocations) for some diseases (sharp-pointed condylomas) can be absent at all. All tool methods of a research possess an error therefore the diagnosis is made usually on the basis of several types of researches.
For studying of laboratory analyses of samples the following methods are used:
smear microscopy (direct and luminescent),
cultural method (drawing a sample on a nutritious surface, then the analysis of medicinal stability),
identification of antigens to the activator (the IFA methods — the immune and fermental analysis and mutual fund — a direct immunofluorescence),
activator DNA identification (the PTsR method — polymerase chain reaction),
identification of antibodies in blood (an immune response of an organism on the activator).
Treatment of infections, sexually transmitted:
For treatment of STD antibiotics, antiviral or antiparasitics, depending on a contagium are used.
Sharp-pointed condylomas are removed radio wave or other methods. In treatment of genital herpes use local therapy.
Sexually active persons which do not have the only and healthy partner need to remember rules of the protected sex (condom) — though it and does not provide 100% of reliability for prevention of infection.
Annual preventive inspection on syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, even in the absence of symptoms is recommended to all sexual and active persons.