- Reasons of a sap
- Symptoms of a sap
- Treatment of a sap
Sap — the contagious zoonotic bacterial chronic infectious disease caused by a bacterium of Burkholderia mallei and proceeding as a septicopyemia with formation of specific granulomas and abscesses (glanderous small knots) is also shown by ulcer rhinitis and lymphadenitis, is purulent - necrotic damages of skin. Generally сап strikes horses, mules and donkeys.
Reasons of a sap:
The activator of a sap is Burkholderia mallei bacterium from the Burkholderiaceae family. It has an appearance of short sticks 2-3 microns long, shorter in fresh cultures and longer, in the form of threads, in older. Sticks are located separately in the form of diplobacilluses. They are not mobile, have neither no dispute, nor capsules, gram-negative. The bacterium on usual mediums grows. In water and the soil remains up to 2 months, in allocations of patients and corpses of animals — 2-3 weeks. Quickly perishes during the heating, action of ultraviolet rays. The stick is sensitive to influence of usual disinfectants.
The activator of a sap gets to an organism through small damages of integuments and extends on lymphatic system in the form of limfangiit and regional lymphadenites. Then it gets to a blood channel, causing emergence in bodies of granulomas which consist of epithelial cells and neutrophilic leukocytes. In these granulomas there is a purulent fusion, there is a septicopyemic process, metastatic abscesses. There is rash on skin and mucous membranes. In lungs the small small knots similar to tubercular hillocks and turning into small abscesses are formed. There is lobulyarny pneumonia. Abscesses are formed also in other bodies. At recirculation of process in a chronic form in small knots proliferation signs prevail. Polyarthritises, displays of sepsis develop.
Symptoms of a sap:
On the course of a disease distinguish acute and chronic forms. The incubation interval at an acute form is equal to 4 days. Distinguish two clinical options: acute form of a sap and form of a skin sap. The disease begins with local and general manifestations. Temperature increase, a fever, an ache in a body, a headache, vomiting, the general weakness belong to the general symptoms. Local manifestations are that in the place of hit of an infection there is a small knot turning into the ulceration surrounded with the tyazha of a lymphangitis of reddish-violet color stretching to regional nodes, all area swells up a little, there is strong swelled, the type of the phlegmon covered with crusts, pustules, devitalized fabrics giving it. At severe forms the hyperthermia, nausea, vomiting, an arthralgia appears. For 5-7 day on face skin there are pustules which ulcerate. Sometimes process affects a conjunctiva of eyes. There is a stethalgia, cough with an otkhozhdeniye of a purulent phlegm. In lungs rattles are listened, there is creeping pneumonia. Further there can be purulent arthritises. Tachycardia, hypotonia, an acute heart failure are noted. In peripheral blood are noted a leukocytosis, neutrophylic shift, SOE is raised. And the skin form is characterized by a long current, slowly developing skin manifestations. Within 2-3 months the skin nodes turning into abscesses from which after formation of pustules liquid is emitted form. In muscles abscesses develop too. In pus there are activators of a sap. Sometimes local forms of a sap develop (ulcers are formed in only in the place of hit of an infection). The chronic form of a sap can last up to 3 years. It can be presented in the skin, pulmonary, mixed forms.
Treatment of a sap:
For treatment of a sap sulfanamide drugs, Kanamycinum combination to chloramphenicol are used. Treatment continues 25 — 30 days. At the same time very carefully, not to catch and to extend an infection, open and process skin defeats. Antibiotics are shown: (penicillin, streptomycin, doxycycline, karbapenema (imipeny)). Along with it mallein is entered. At severe forms Haemodesum, реополиглюкин is entered. Vitamin therapy is carried out. Carry sometimes out a symptomatic treatment. Due to high degree of danger and incurability of a disease at emergence of clinical signs treatment of a sap at animals is forbidden.