- Microsporia symptoms
- Microsporia reasons
- Treatment of the Microsporia
Microsporia – a fungus disease at which skin and hair, and in exclusively exceptional cases and nail plates are surprised. The name of this fungus disease comes from a name of its activator – a sort Microsporum mushroom. The disease is known also as "cutting deprive" that is caused by features of its manifestation.
Manifestations of a microsporia at animals are characterized by sites of baldness on a muzzle, the outside surfaces of auricles, and also on lobbies, is more rare back, paws. Often externally healthy cats can be mushroom carriers.
Seasonal fluctuations of incidence are connected with issues at cats, and also more frequent contact of children with animals during the summer period. Rise in incidence of a microsporia begins at the end of summer, the peak falls on October-November, decrease to a minimum occurs in March-April.
The incubation interval at a zoonotic microsporia makes 5–7 days. The nature of manifestations of a microsporia is caused by an arrangement of the centers of defeat and penetration depth of the activator. Allocate a microsporia of smooth skin and a microsporia of a pilar part of the head.
Microsporia of smooth skin.
In the place of implementation of a mushroom there is an edematous, towering red spot with a clear boundary. Gradually the spot increases in the diameter. On edge the continuous towering roller presented by small small knots, bubbles and crusts forms. In the central part of a spot there is permission of an inflammation owing to what it gets light pink coloring, with a scaly peeling on a surface. Thus, the center has a ring appearance. The quantity of the centers at a microsporia of smooth skin is, as a rule, small (1–3). Their diameter fluctuates from 0,5 to 3 cm. Most often the centers are located on face skin, necks, forearms and shoulders. Subjective feelings the moderate itch is not present or disturbs.
At newborns and children of early age, and also at young women the expressed inflammatory phenomena and the minimum peeling are quite often noted.
At the persons inclined to allergic reactions (in particular, at patients with atopic dermatitis), the fungus quite often masks manifestations of the main process and is not always timely diagnosed. Use of local hormonal drugs only strengthens spread of a fungal infection.
It is necessary to refer damage of skin of palms, soles and nail plates to a rare kind of a microsporia. The isolated damage of a nail, usually its outer edge is characteristic of damage of nails. In the beginning the dim spot getting over time white coloring forms. The nail in the field of albication becomes softer and brittle, and afterwards can collapse.
Microsporia of a pilar part of the head
Defeat of a pilar part of the head a microsporia occurs preferential at children of 5-12 years. It is considered to be that the rarity of this form at adults is explained by existence at them in hair of organic acids, growth-retarding a mushroom. This fact is indirectly confirmed by independent recovery of children during puberty when there is a change of composition of skin fat. It is interesting that the microsporia of a pilar part of the head practically does not occur at children with red hair.
The centers of a microsporia of a pilar part of the head are located mainly on the top, in parietal and temporal areas. Usually there are 1–2 large centers from 2 to 5 cm, with roundish or oval outlines and a clear boundary. On edge of the large centers there can be eliminations – small ochazhka with a diameter of 0,5-1,5 cm. At the beginning of a disease on site of infection the site of a peeling is formed. In the first days the mushroom is located only in the mouth of a hair bulb. On closer examination it is possible to notice the whitish ring-shaped scale surrounding a hair like a cuff. For the 6-7th day the microsporia extends to hair which become brittle, break off over the level of surrounding skin on 4–6 mm and look as if cut (the name "cutting deprive" from here). Remained hemp look dim, are covered with the cap of grayish-white color representing mushroom disputes. If stroke hemp, they deviate in one direction and unlike healthy hair do not redeem the initial situation. Skin in the defeat center, as a rule, slightly reddened, is edematous, its surface is covered with grayish-white small scales.
At a suppurative form of a microsporia against the background of a considerable inflammation, soft nodes of cyanotic-red color which surface is covered with pustules form. When pressing through openings pus is emitted. Formation of a suppurative form of a microsporia is promoted by irrational (usually local) therapy, existence of serious associated diseases, the late address to the doctor.
Having got on skin, the mushroom is implemented into it and begins to breed. At an arrangement near hair bulbs disputes of a mushroom burgeon, leading to damage of a hair. Quickly enough extending on the surface of a hair, the mushroom destroys a cuticle between which scales disputes accumulate. Thus, the mushroom surrounds a hair, creating a cover, and densely fills a bulb.
The microsporia is the most widespread fungal infection, apart from a fungus of feet. The disease meets everywhere. The microsporia has high transmissibility, children suffer more often. Adults are ill seldom – preferential young women. The rarity of a disease of a microsporia of adults, especially with defeat of a pilar part of the head, and usually occurring independent recovery at the beginning of the teenage period is explained by existence in hair of adults of organic acids, growth-retarding a mushroom.
The main source of a disease – cats (usually kittens), is more rare than a dog. Infection with a microsporia occurs at direct contact with a sick animal or the objects infected with wool or scales. Having got to the soil with the affected hair or a scale, the mushroom keeps viability only within 1–3 months. Thus, the soil is only a factor of transmission of infection and is not its natural source.
Treatment of the Microsporia:
At treatment of a microsporia of smooth skin without damage of hair use outside antifungal drugs. On the centers defeats are inflicted in the morning by 2–5% iodine tincture, and grease with antifungal ointment in the evening. Use traditional 10–20% of sulfuric, 10% serno-3% of salicylic or 10% sulfur-tar ointments. Modern ointments are twice a day applied: Clotrimazolum, циклопирокс, изоконазол, бифоназол, etc. Well proved drug тербинафин (lamizit), released in the form of 1% of cream and spray.
At the expressed inflammation it is reasonable to appoint the combined drugs containing in addition hormones. Ointments Mycosolonum and травокорт belong to similar means.
At accession of a bacterial infection cream тридерм is useful. At deep forms of a microsporia the drugs containing Dimexidum are shown. In particular, in similar situations 10% Chinosolum solution are widely applied (Chinosolum and salicylic acid on 10,0, Dimexidum 72,0, the distilled water 8,0). Solution should be applied 2 times a day before disappearance of mushrooms.
At defeat vellus and furthermore long hair performing system antifungal therapy of a microsporia is necessary.
At treatment of a microsporia of a pilar part of the head still griseofulvin – the antibiotic produced by a mold mushroom remains drug of the choice. The griseofulvin produced in the form of tablets on 125 mg. Drug is accepted daily in 3–4 inclusion in food time with a teaspoon of vegetable oil which is necessary for increase in solubility of griseofulvin and increase in duration of its action. It is more preferable to children under 3 years to appoint griseofulvin in the form of suspension which 8,3 ml correspond to 1 tablet (125 mg) of drug. Continuous therapy is carried out to the first negative take of the analysis on mushrooms then griseofulvin within 2 weeks is accepted in the same dose every other day, and then 2 more weeks 2 times a week. The general course of treatment makes 1,5–2 months. In the course of treatment it is necessary to shave off weekly hair and to wash the head 2 times a week. It is recommended to rub at the same time to the area of the center any antifungal ointment. In parallel with reception of antifungal drug it is possible to carry out manual removal of hair with preliminary imposing on the center of defeat of 5% of a grizeofulvinovy plaster.
From side effects of griseofulvin it should be noted a headache, allergic rashes, sensations of discomfort in pancreatic area. Because of toxic influence on a liver griseofulvin is contraindicated to the children who had hepatitis or having liver diseases. Drug is not appointed also at diseases of kidneys, a peptic ulcer of a stomach and a duodenum, neuritis, blood diseases, photodermatoses.
In recent years serves as an alternative to griseofulvin тербинафин (lamizit). At treatment of a microsporia of a pilar part of the head it is applied тербинафин in the form of the tablets which are released in doses on 125 and 250 mg. At treatment of a microsporia of a pilar part of the head of children the dose of a terbinafin is established depending on body weight. Terbinafin accept 1 time a day. Portability of drug good. The feeling of overflow in a stomach, insignificant abdominal pains can disturb patients. Observance of the diet directed to stopping of a meteorism saves patients from unpleasant feelings.