Intersticial diseases of lungs
- Reasons of intersticial diseases of lungs
- Symptoms of intersticial diseases of lungs
- Treatment of intersticial pulmonary diseases
Intersticial diseases of lungs are a general name of the whole group of pulmonary diseases. The fact that all of them influence an interstitium, a part of an anatomic structure of lungs combines diseases of this category.
The interstitium, or intersticial fabric is a connecting tissue of lungs. The interstitium provides support to alveoluses, microscopic air sacks of lungs. Tiny blood vessels pass through an interstitium and perform function of gas exchange between blood and air in lungs. Interstitium fabric so thin that it, as a rule, not a look on a chest X-ray or at a computer tomography though the disease of an interstitium can be revealed at these researches.
Any damages to pulmonary fabric are caused an interstitium thickening. The thickening can result from an inflammation, formation of hems or accumulation of additional liquid (hypostasis). Some forms of defeat of pulmonary fabric soon pass, others are chronic and incurable
Reasons of intersticial diseases of lungs:
The reasons of defeat of pulmonary fabric can be various. So, bacteria, viruses or a fungus can cause intersticial pneumonia. Other intersticial diseases can be connected with regular inhalation of the irritating substances – asbestos, quartz dust, talc, coal and metal dust, grain dust. In rare instances diseases of lungs of this group can develop because of influence of some narcotic substances.
Feature of an interstitsialna of diseases of lungs is that above-mentioned factors, actually, cause only some of diseases. In most cases the exact cause of illness of lungs and remains to the unknown.
Symptoms of intersticial diseases of lungs:
The most common symptom of all forms of a disease is an asthma which can amplify eventually. At the majority of diseases an asthma develops quite slowly, approximately in a current of month. In a case with intersticial pneumonia or acute intersticial pneumonia symptoms can develop very quickly, literally for several days or even hours.
Can be other symptoms of a disease:
Cough, as a rule, dry and unproductive;
Loss of weight;
The complicated breath.
Examples of intersticial diseases of lungs the byt:interstitsialny pneumonia arising because of influence of bacteria, viruses or a fungus can.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This chronic disease at which there is fibrosis (scarring) of an interstitium. The reasons of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis still are definitely not known.
Nonspecific intersticial pneumonia – an intersticial pulmonary disease which is often connected with autoimmune diseases, such as a pseudorheumatism or a scleroderma.
Allergic pneumonia – the intersticial disease of lungs caused by inhalation of dust, a mold or other irritants.
The cryptogenic organized pneumonia – an intersticial disease of lungs, similar to pneumonia, but without the real infection.
Acute intersticial pneumonia, the serious and sudden intersticial illness of lungs which is often demanding use of devices of life support.
Desquamative intersticial pneumonia – the disease of lungs which is partially caused by smoking.
Sarcoidosis – the state causing an intersticial pulmonary disease along with a hyperadenosis, and sometimes and which is followed by damage of heart, integuments, nerves, organs of sight.
Asbestosis – the disease caused by impact on asbestos lungs.
Hammana-Rich's syndrome and other diseases.
Usually people with intersticial pulmonary diseases come to consultation to the pulmonologist with complaints to an asthma or cough. For diagnosis the doctor, as a rule, uses special methods of a research легких:Рентген a thorax. This research is usually conducted first of all for assessment of the general condition of lungs. Defeats of an interstitium can be displayed in pictures in the form of striolas in lungs.
Computer Tomography (CT). The tomography allows to create the detailed image of lungs and the structures adjoining to them. Intersticial diseases of lungs, as a rule, types at KT.
KT with high resolution. Special settings of the tomograph at suspicion of a disease of an interstitium increase efficiency of diagnosis.
Assessment of function of external respiration by means of special tests of lungs, including bodipletizmografiya, spirometry and some other.
Biopsy of a lung and studying of the received samples under a microscope. Frequent it is the only way of definition what type of defeat of pulmonary fabric is available for the patient. Fabric samples at a biopsy can be taken by means of the bronkhoskopiya which is video assisted the torakoskopichesky surgery open for a biopsy of a lung (toraktomiya).
Treatment of intersticial pulmonary diseases:
The scheme of treatment of intersticial diseases of lungs is selected the pulmonologist depending on type of defeat of pulmonary fabric and its reasons. In general treatment can be carried out by means of antibiotics (they are especially effective for the majority of types of bacterial intersticial pneumonia). Viral pneumonia usually passes independently and is not treated by antibiotics. Fungal pneumonia which happens extremely seldom is treated by special anti-fungal drugs.
One more type of drugs are corticosteroids which reduce inflammatory process in easy and other parts of a body. Other drugs can slow down, for example, damage of lungs and process of deterioration in their function or to suppress immune system for reduction of inflammatory process as response of an organism to a disease.
At people with the low content of oxygen in blood which arose owing to an intersticial disease of lungs, inhalation of oxygen via special devices can improve the state of health, and also fill the need of heart for oxygen.
In certain cases, at a severe form of a disease of lungs, change of a lung can be the most effective method of controlling with a disease.