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The silicosis (Latin of silicium — "silicon"), or a chalicosis (from Greek chalix — "a limy stone") represents a disease which develops as a result of long inhalation of the dust containing free silicon dioxide.

It is characterized by diffusion growth in easy for connecting fabric and formation of characteristic small knots.

Silicosis symptoms:

Silicosis, being a chronic disease, often throughout a long time does not disturb the patient. Initial clinical symptomatology scanty: an asthma at an exercise stress, a stethalgia of uncertain character, rare dry cough. Thorax pains in the form of a pricking, mainly in shovels and under shovels, and also in the form of feeling of constraint and constraint at such patients are caused by changes of a pleura owing to its microtraumatization and formation of commissures in a pleural cavity at the expense of the dust getting through lymphatic system of lungs. The pneumofibrosis, emphysema of lungs and bronchitis are asthma origins at a silicosis. Therefore in early stages of a disease in the absence of the expressed emphysema of lungs and bronchitis asthma it is observed only at a big physical tension.

Silicosis reasons:

The disease is more often observed at miners of various mines (drillers, coalminers, timberers), working foundry workshops (sandblasters, obrubshchik, core makers), workers of production of fire-resistant materials and pottery. It is a chronic disease which weight and rate of development can be various and are in direct dependence as from aggression of the inhaled dust (concentration of dust, amount of free silicon dioxide in it, dispersion), and from duration of influence of a dust factor and specific features of an organism.

Treatment of the Silicosis:

    * Exception of contact with silicon dust
    * Inhalations of the moistened oxygen and respiratory gymnastics
    * Reception of a sedativnykha of anti-hypertensive means is not recommended
    * Bronchoalveolar lavage at an acute silicosis
    * Bronchial spasmolytics at the accompanying obstructive syndrome
    * Antitubercular drugs
    * An isoniazid of 300 mg/days within a year at a positive take of skin tests with tuberculine
    * At a tuberculosilicosis use not less than 3 antitubercular drugs, including rifampicin.

Surgical treatment – transplantation of lungs at development of massive fibrosis.

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