- Symptoms of the Hydrocyanism
- Reasons of the Hydrocyanism
- Treatment of the Hydrocyanism
Cyanhydric acid is a colourless, easily flying liquid with a smell of bitter almonds. A chemical formula - HCN. Temperature of boiling is 26 °C. Cyanhydric acid - one of the most toxic agents known to modern science. It has the strongest poisoning effect on the person and animals. The lethal dose of cyanhydric acid makes 1 mg/kg of body weight i.e. if the person weighs 70 kg, then death will come at hit in an organism of 70 mg of cyanhydric acid.
Symptoms of the Hydrocyanism:
At slight poisoning:
* A smell of bitter almonds from a mouth.
* Irritation in a throat.
* Dizziness, hypersalivation, vomiting.
* Fear, shock.
At a serious poisoning:
* Loss of consciousness. Spasms.
* Hyperemia of integuments.
* Paralysis of a respiratory center.
Reasons of the Hydrocyanism:
The hydrocyanism occurs owing to the use of acid which through a gullet comes to a stomach and intestines, and also owing to inhalation of toxic fumes which of respiratory tracts get into lungs. Besides, cyanhydric acid can get to an organism through skin, the truth only if one liter of air contains more than 11 mg of acid. Most often poisonings arise at people whose work assumes continuous contact with cyanhydric acid, for example, at those who work in service of extermination of insects and do not follow the safety regulation. Under the influence of poison in an organism intracellular breath and activity of a brain is broken that leads to a lethal outcome.
Treatment of the Hydrocyanism:
At insignificant concentration poison begins to work in a few minutes, at high - the person dies in several seconds. Therefore at poisoning it is necessary as soon as possible, using antidote, to stop effect of poison and to bring him out of an organism. It is necessary to monitor the vital functions of the victim also.
At suspicion on a hydrocyanism first of all it is necessary to cause vomiting in the victim, then to bring him to fresh air, to allow to drink the activated coal and to cause emergency medical service. During the work with harmful substances it is necessary to follow strictly safety regulations and to use special protective equipment.
In case of poisoning it is necessary to call the doctor as soon as possible. By a call of ambulance it is necessary to report that there was a hydrocyanism.
At first the doctor will define whether really the patient got poisoned with cyanhydric acid. Poisoning can be distinguished on a characteristic smell of bitter almonds and other signs. The doctor will intravenously enter antidote (antidote) of cyanhydric acid - sodium thiosulphate which weakens effect of poison. At disturbance of the vital functions the doctor undertakes resuscitation measures. After first-aid treatment it hospitalizes the patient for passing of further treatment.