Poisoning with methyl alcohol
- Reasons of poisoning with methyl alcohol
- Symptoms of poisoning with methyl alcohol
- Treatment of an otrvleniye methyl alcohol
Methyl alcohol (methanol, wood alcohol) - colourless transparent liquid, but to a smell is similar to alcohol. It is widely applied in the industry, can be the cause of accidental poisonings.
Reasons of poisoning with methyl alcohol:
Toxic doses. Toxic consider doses from 30 ml. Toxicity is influenced by single-step reception of ethanol, at the same time the toxic dose can repeatedly increase.
Toxicity mechanism. Methanol in a human body is metabolized by the same enzymes, as ethanol: alcohol dehydrogenase to formaldehyde, and the last aldegiddegidrogenazy to formic acid. At the same time oppression of TsNS, the expressed metabolic acidosis, toxic damages of an optic nerve and retina of an eye, a blindness develop. It is considered that the metabolic acidosis is caused by effect of formic acid, and a blindness - preferential toxic effect of formaldehyde on an organ of sight. Metabolism of methanol happens much more slowly, than ethanol.
Symptoms of poisoning with methyl alcohol:
During an initial stage of intoxication the clinical picture reminds that at a drunkenness. But in 1 - 40 h (depending on the accepted dose) characteristic symptoms of poisoning with methanol develop: from the digestive channel - nausea, vomiting, a diarrhea, an abdominal pain; TsNS - various degree oppression of consciousness up to coma, spasms and the central disorders of breath; an organ of sight - from "flashing of front sights", emergence of "grid" before eyes, sometimes diplopias before permanent progressive decrease in visual acuity, a moderate mydriasis, oppression of photoreactions; cardiovascular system - tachycardia, fluctuations of level of arterial pressure, deterioration in a hemodynamics at heavy intoxication. Integuments and visible mucous membranes dry, total cyanosis is observed.
The diagnosis is established on the basis of a characteristic clinical picture, existence of damage of a retina and an optic nerve, detection of methanol in biological environments of an organism.
Treatment of an otrvleniye methyl alcohol:
First of all it is necessary to normalize functions of respiratory and cardiovascular systems, to stop spasms if they are available. For removal of the phenomena of a metabolic acidosis enter Natrii hydrocarbonas. Wash out a stomach, enter an enterosorbent, laxative.
Specific antidote - alcohol which enters with methanol competitive antagonism for enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase that it prevents disintegration of methanol and formation of toxic products of metabolism. Considering the slowed-down methanol metabolism, ethanol is accepted during 5 days from the moment of the methanol use. An ethanol dose - 1 - 2 g/kg a day. Ethanol is entered or intravenously kapelno (in the absence of consciousness or at vomiting) in the form of 5% of solution (20 ml of 96% of solution into 400 ml of 5% of solution of glucose), or inside in the form of 30% of solution in each 3 h, at the same time the daily dose is evenly distributed between receptions. For acceleration of metabolism of formic acid enter folic acid - on 5 - 10 mg of 4 - 6 times a day, and also niacinamide - on 10 - 25 mg of 4 - 6 times a day. Further apply extracorporal methods of a detoxication.