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Psittacosis (ornithosis)


Psittacosis (ornithosis) - an acute zoonotic hlamidiozny disease with preferential damage of lungs and development of a syndrome of intoxication.
Tank and sources of an infection - domestic and wild birds. Now the activator of an ornithosis is allocated more than at 150 bird species. Poultry (especially ducks and turkeys), room birds (parrots, canaries and other small songbirds) and especially city pigeons whose infectiousness varies within 30-80% has the greatest epidemiological value. Birds allocate the activator with excrements and a nasal secret. The sick person does not constitute epidemiological danger. The period of contageousness of a source - weeks and months.

The transfer mechanism - aerosol, is possible dust and food ways of infection.

Natural susceptibility of people high. Postinfectious immunity short, repeated cases are possible.

Main epidemiological signs. The disease is widespread everywhere. About 10% of all pneumonia have the ornitozny nature. More often the persons which are constantly contacting to birds get sick (employees of poultry farms, meat-processing plants, pigeon breeders, employees of pet-shops, etc.). Household diseases arise during the whole year, professional - during the periods of a mass face of a bird, delivery of new parties of birds and t. At household infection observe sporadic diseases more often though also small (family) flashes are possible. Persons of middle and advanced age get sick preferential.

Psitakoz's (ornithosis) symptoms:

Incubation interval. 1-3 weeks last. The infection can proceed in an acute or chronic form.

Acute form. Begins with bystry temperature increase to high figures. Fever is accompanied by oznoba, the increased sweating, muscle and joints pains, a headache. Fever has constant or remittiruyushchy character and proceeds from 1 to 3 week.

Patients complain of weakness, pharyngalgias, a sleep disorder and appetite, locks. Nausea and a liquid chair are sometimes possible.

At survey find the conjunctivitis phenomena in a part of patients. Language утолщён, is laid over, prints of teeth at the edges are possible. Quite often on the first week of a disease the hepatolienal syndrome forms. Cardiac sounds are muffled, note tendency to bradycardia and a lowering of arterial pressure. Sleeplessness, excitement, irritability and tearfulness, in certain cases - block, apathy, an adynamia develop. Symptoms of irritation of a meninx can come to light.

The first sign of damage of lungs - cough, dry or with a mucous phlegm, appears only for the 3-4th day of a disease. During this period at patients it is possible to reveal symptoms of laryngitis and a tracheobronchitis. Further at development pneumoniaof asthma it is not expressed, percussion changes of a sound over lungs define seldom, at auscultation listen to dry rattles and only in some cases single - small-bubbling. However radiological it is possible to find the intersticial changes or the centers of infiltrates which are usually located in lower parts of lungs and also expansion of pulmonary roots, strengthening of the pulmonary drawing, sometimes - increase in radical lymph nodes. In case of accession of opportunistic flora pneumonia can be also macrofocal and lobar.

Rassasyvaniye of the centers of pneumonia occurs slowly, is long the adynamy remains. Sometimes the absolute recovery comes in 10-15 days, in other cases the disease becomes remittiruyushchy with the subsequent recurrence. An early recurrence develops in 2-4 weeks after an acute phase, late - 3-4 months later. A fate of patients the ornithosis accepts a chronic current. Carry to seldom found options of an acute form of an ornithosis also the cases without damage of lungs proceeding with moderate fever, pharyngalgias, mialgiya, development of a hepatolienal syndrome. The ornitozny serous meningitis which sometimes is combined with pneumonia and also meningoentsefalita with development of polyneurites, paresis and paralyzes (voice folds, the lower extremities) are known.

Chronic form. Develops at 10-12% of patients and proceeds in the form of chronic bronchitis or defeats of other bodies and systems and several years can proceed.

Generalized form of an ornithosis. The disease concerns to group of the zoonotic clamidioses developing at infection of the person S. of psittaci. Has the general with an ornithosis etiological, epidemiological and pathogenetic characteristics.

Incubation interval. Varies from 1 to 3 week. More often the disease begins sharply with bystry fervescence to high figures, a fever, a headache, arthralgias. The prodromal syndrome in the form of the general weakness, a loss of appetite, a headache and subfebrile condition can sometimes be shown. In the subsequent high fever remains within several days, decreases lytically. Patients complain of dryness in a mouth, thirst, nausea, deterioration in appetite, a sleep disorder. In most cases from the first days of a disease develop arthralgias in large joints of extremities.

At survey of patients note pallor of integuments (much more rare a short-term hyperemia of the person and an upper part of a trunk), conjunctivitis with serous separated, an injection of vessels of scleras. Cardiac sounds are muffled, pulse is speeded up, лабилен, arterial pressure is inclined to slight increase. Pathology from respiratory system is absent. Language is laid densely over by a white plaque, the sizes of a liver are increased, a spleen of an intaktn. The urination is speeded up, the daily urine is raised, in urine protein content, leukocytes, cylinders increases, note hypo - and an isosthenuria. Sick astenizirovana, emotionally labilna. The neurologic symptomatology in the form of a tremor of fingers of hands, tremblings of language at protrusion, paresthesia in hands, trifacial neuritis can be shown. Development of an episcleritis on the 2nd week of a disease or is characteristic later. It is shown by burning sensation, "sand in eyes", an oxycinesia of eyeglobes, sometimes decrease in sight. Changes from an eyeground are possible.

Psitakoz's (ornithosis) reasons:

The activator - the gram-negative motionless bacterium of Chlamydia psittaci, the family Chlamydia of the Chlamydiaceae family obligatno parasitizing in the infected cells. Chlamydias have spherical shape, are painted according to Romanovsky-Gimz in violet color. Contain DNA and RNA, breed only in living cells, are cultivated in cultures of fabric and chicken embryos, and also in an organism of laboratory animals (on white mice). Possess heat-labile and thermostable antigen. The activator is steady against freezing, is inactivated when heating and under the influence of disinfectants in usual concentration. It is carried to the second group of pathogenicity.

Psitakoz's (ornithosis) treatment:

The most effective etiotropic remedies in treatment of an ornithosis and generalized form of clamidiosis - azithromycin and erythromycin in average therapeutic doses. Use of antibiotics of a tetracycline row is possible. Duration of a course depends on clinical effect. As means of pathogenetic treatment carry out disintoxication therapy, appoint bronchial spasmolytics, vitamins, oxygen, symptomatic means.

Drugs, drugs, tablets for Psitakoz's (ornithosis) treatment:

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