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Cold allergy


Cold allergy or cold urticaria (Latin "Urtica" – a nettle) — allergic reaction on open parts of a body in the form of rashes as a small tortoiseshell or red spots caused by cold (cold air or water).

Reasons of a cold allergy:

Though it is also called an allergy, actually such answer of an organism has nothing in common with true allergic reaction. Cold, dampness, a frost is physical factors, but not the substance causing a sensitization — hypersensitivity. But in this article, we will not change the standard definitions therefore we will call this reaction to cold after all a cold allergy.

The cold allergy is shown literally already in a few minutes after influence of the lowered temperature in the form of rashes on open sites of skin: on a face, hands, it is frequent on lips after drink of cold drinks. Rashes of pink or whitish color, dense, are followed by an itch, several hours can keep, and then completely disappear.

There are also other forms of a cold allergy which meet in the presence of other diseases — disturbances of functions of a thyroid gland, a lupus erythematosus, and proceed much heavier. Sometimes the rare form — hereditary meets. It is followed by burning sensation and is more reaction of an organism to wind, than to cold.

But even the most, apparently, harmless form of a cold allergy is not so safe as it seems to us. It causes a severe itch and a sensation of discomfort, the health worsens: there are headaches, arterial pressure goes down. And at the general overcooling of an organism heavier manifestations — a so-called Quincke's edema can appear. (Manifestation of a Quincke's edema — increase in the person or its part, or an extremity, skin color at the same time does not change.)

Symptoms of a cold allergy:

So, as to distinguish it, the cold allergy skillfully "masks" under dermatitis, cold, ORZ I SARS.

Only you came to cold — as the head right there ached. Cramps facial and cervical muscles, the pressing nape pains and areas of a forehead begin, from the amplifying headache appears feelings of nausea. It is time to come into the warm room: There are enough 10-15 minutes, as a rule, to say goodbye to a headache attack. Can provoke this symptom not only subzero temperatures of air, but also, for example, ice drinks or a cold bed.

Reddish rashes, peeling and itch on skin of hands and persons, sometimes under a knee and on the internal surface of hips.

At adults everything begins with a cold allergy on hands. Skin of hands at first is just scratched, then becomes dry, grows coarse, becomes covered by cracks and even rashes like small tortoiseshell. At a skin form of a cold allergy at the child the favourite place of rashes — the person. Cheeks, a chin, nasolabial area redden. There will be a burning sensation further, the kid will begin to pound these places, and rashes very similar to gerpesny are provided. At lovers of thin tights gentle skin, sensitive to cold, under knees and on the internal surface of hips suffers in the winter.

After a small tortoiseshell puffiness of the person, legs, hands appears.

It is unclear arisen long cold, nose congestion, itch in nasal passes, irritation in a throat and even conjunctivitis with dacryagogue and an itch mucous an eye.

Breath on cold intercepts, it becomes complicated, narrowing of bronchial tubes often provokes an asthma.

And still there are such signs of a cold allergy as feeling of fatigue and sharp jumps of mood.

The cold allergy can become aggravated and proceed against the background of other diseases and to be only their mask, for example, at shortage of vitamins (avitaminosis) and microelements, dysfunctions of a thyroid gland, vegeto-vascular dystonia, etc.

If there is other allergic disease, for example atopic dermatitis, food allergy, allergic rhinitis, then and the cold allergy will heavier proceed. Often cold allergy begins after the postponed SARS or other infectious diseases.

Types of a cold allergy:
There are several types of an allergy to cold. Each of them has the signs:

The acute and chronic cold urticaria – this form of a disease is characterized by the acute beginning, an intensive itch of open sites of skin – a face, hands, sometimes all body surface. Soon on places of an itch there is a cutaneous dropsy which is shown as a blister. Then there are rashes in the form of intensive reddening of certain sites of skin, as at a sting of a mosquito or "sting" of a nettle. At severe forms of a disease there is a fever, a febricula, a joint pain and muscles, heartbeat, the expressed weakness. The exacerbation of a disease can proceed within several weeks and even months – all cold period of year;

The recurrent form of a small tortoiseshell — it is characteristic seasonality: fall, winter, early spring. Year-round aggravations arise at impact on skin of cold water;

Reflex cold urticaria – the general or local reaction to cold, similar to a cholinergic small tortoiseshell. Sometimes it arises only when cooling all body. Local reaction to cold is shown by the rash arising around the cooled site of skin while the skin which was directly contacting to cold is not surprised;

Family cold urticaria – the rare form of a small tortoiseshell inherited on autosomal dominantly type. The spotty and papular rash and burning arising in 0,5 – 3 hours after cold action are characteristic. System manifestations fever, a fever, joint pains, a leukocytosis are possible. The rare form of a disease at which a small tortoiseshell arises 20 – 30 hours later after cold action is described. As rashes at the same time are followed by an itch and burning, the diagnosis of a chronic idiopathic small tortoiseshell is quite often mistakenly made;

The cold erythema – is shown by erubescence (erythema). The expressed morbidity of affected areas of skin is characteristic of this form of a disease;

Cold dermatitis — skin scratches strongly and shelled. If the disease got rather severe form, then it is possible to observe hypostasis of all body;

Cold rhinitis — differs from usual cold in the fact that the feeling of a congestion of a nose arises only on cold. As soon as the person, the suffering similar form of an allergy to cold comes into the warm room, all symptoms right there vanish;

Cold conjunctivitis — on a frost is observed a strong slezootdeleniye, and also gripes in eyes.

It is not necessary to confuse the described symptoms to natural protection of an organism against cold and wind weather which do not cause essential discomfort and quickly disappear in the warm environment.

Кожные проявления холодовой аллергии

Skin manifestations of a cold allergy

Treatment of a cold allergy:

The technique of treatment of a cold allergy is similar to treatment of a true allergy. First of all, it is necessary to avoid contact with a provocative factor, in this case — cold. Winter allergic persons need to put on in clothes from natural fabrics and not to be exposed to cooling. Degree of sensitivity is individual. At one allergic reactions arise at air temperature minus 24-28C, at others — minus 8-10C, at some — after washing by cold water. If overcooling did not manage to be avoided, then take a warm shower or a bath.

Medicines — antihistaminic drugs Suprastinum, tavegil, кларитин.
It is necessary to consider that some of them have somnolent effect, and they should not be applied during execution of the works demanding concentration of attention and speed of reaction, for example, to take the wheel of the car. At bronchospasms apply bronkhodilyatator. In hard cases doctors appoint the plasma exchange purifying blood of cryoglobulins, glucocorticosteroids, some immunodepressants.

Most often the cold allergy appears at the people who are not tempered and having the centers of persistent infection (painful teeth, antritis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, cholecystitis, pyelonephritis, etc.). Therefore it is necessary to pay special attention to their treatment. An abnormal liver function and intestines, dysbacterioses contribute to an allergy, including cold.

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