Poisoning with mushrooms
- Symptoms of Poisoning with mushrooms
- Reasons of Poisoning with mushrooms
- Treatment of Poisoning with mushrooms
Poisoning with mushrooms belongs to biological poisonings, actually poisonous mushrooms can cause it (a death angel, fly agarics, false
honey agarics, false raincoats), conditionally edible mushrooms emitting at a razlamyvaniye lacteal juice (raincoats, an ink mushroom, or an earth-boring dung beetle, morels, lines, etc.) as a result of inept or wrong culinary processing and even the edible mushrooms which received the name "mutants" (accumulation in a mycelium of the toxic agents gaining qualitatively new properties, including products of decomposition of proteins, harmful to the person, in old fruit bodies, and also waste products of the got accustomed insects and worms). Mushrooms are difficult
the product digested in intestines. It is not recommended to eat mushrooms to pregnant women and the feeding women, they are contraindicated to children up to 8 years (irrespective of a way and preparation time).
Symptoms of Poisoning with mushrooms:
Death angel. Symptoms: in 68 hours and later there are pernicious vomiting, kolikoobrazny abdominal pains, a diarrhea with blood. For 2-3 day symptoms of a liver and renal failure, jaundice, increase and morbidity of a liver, an anury appear. Coma develops. Mortality reaches 50%.
Fly agarics. Symptoms: not later than in 2 hours there is vomiting, the increased sweating, hypersalivation, abdominal pains, sharp narrowing of pupils. The expressed asthma, a bronchorrhea, an urezheniye of pulse and falling of arterial pressure appear in more hard cases of poisoning, spasms and nonsense, hallucinations and coma are possible.
Lines. At good culinary processing are non-toxical. At poisoning there is vomiting, a diarrhea. In 6-12 h jaundice, urine of dark color in connection with a haemoglobinuria, increase and a bolezpenost of a liver develops. Poisonous russulas, coral milky caps, etc. The phenomena of an acute gastroenteritis as a result of a gastrointestinal tract disease prevail.
Reasons of Poisoning with mushrooms:
The main reason for mushroom poisonings — inability to distinguish edible and poisonous mushrooms, the wrong preparation of dishes from some edible mushrooms, and also possible mutations of edible mushrooms.
In poisonous mushrooms poisons - toxins which, getting into a human body, cause poisonings collect. On the nature of effect of toxins several groups of mushrooms are allocated: the containing poisonous cyclopeptides containing poisonous alkaloids muscarine, мускаридин, мусцимол and also hallucinogenic ibotenovy acid which poisons cause gastrointestinal frustration (as an acute gastroenteritis), toxin коприн, etc.
Treatment of Poisoning with mushrooms:
First aid at poisoning with mushrooms quite often plays a crucial role in rescue of the patient. It is necessary to begin immediately a gastric lavage with water, it is better by means of the probe weak solution (pink color) of potassium permanganate or by method of artificial vomiting. Got but to add absorbent carbon (Carbolenum) to solution. Then give laxative (castor oil and salt), cleansing several times give enemas. After that the patient heat is covered and laid over hot-water bottles, allow to have hot sweet tea, coffee. It is necessary to bring the patient to medical institution where he will be given medical assistance which it needs.
Specific treatment. At poisoning with a red fly agaric with antidote atropine which injection of 0,1% of solution on 1 ml under skin should repeat 3-4 bucketed times 30-40 minutes is. For a spasmolysis of bronchial tubes - Isadrinum (Novodrinum, эуспирин), an Euphyllinum in usual doses. From analeptics caffeine is useful. The acids and acid products inside promoting absorption of the muscarine alkaloid which is contained in a red fly agaric are contraindicated. Treatment at poisoning with a panterny fly agaric (it is similar to champignon and an umbrella edible) is similar to treatment at poisoning with the plants containing atropine and Scopolaminum.
At poisoning with a death angel, and also false openka, a bitter boletus, devilish, treatment first of all is directed by mushrooms-mlechnikami (milk mushrooms, gorkush, flat-cap mushrooms, coral milky caps) to a pas elimination of dehydration and collapse. Various plasma substitutes are applied: Ringer's solution, isotonic solution of sodium chloride, salt инфузип, Polyglucinum, etc. of not less than 3-5 l a day in a vein kapelno. Use noradrenaline or a phenylephine hydrochloride for increase in blood pressure, for prevention or weakening of damage of a liver - a hydrocortisone or similar drugs, antibiotics of a broad spectrum of activity. With an accuracy which developed cordial nedosta-strophanthin, Korglykonum. The forecast at poisoning with a death angel very adverse. It must be kept in mind that toxic agents of a death angel are not afraid of high temperature and drying, do not pass into broth and cause a degeneration of kidneys, liver and heart.