Poisoning with compounds of fluorine
- Symptoms of Poisoning with compounds of fluorine
- Reasons of Poisoning with compounds of fluorine
- Treatment of Poisoning with compounds of fluorine
Fluorine and fluoric hydrogen at a usual temperature are gases. Fluorine and its connections are used in many chemical and industrial processes. Fluorine and its salts are poisonous, they break exchange of calcium in an organism and interfere with enzymatic processes. Fluorides form insoluble rainfall with calcium and lower the maintenance of calcium ions in plasma. Fluoric hydrogen (and its aqueous solution – fluoric acid) has ability "to corrode" fabrics. At contact with skin and mucous membranes it causes deep damages and necroses. Maximum allowable concentration of fluoric hydrogen of 0,0005 mg/l.
Symptoms of Poisoning with compounds of fluorine:
Steam inhalation of fluoric hydrogen or fluorine causes cough, suffocation attacks, an asthma, a fever. After the termination of influence of vapors symptoms disappear, but after the eclipse period within several hours cough, weight in breasts, rattles and cyanosis develop again, the fluid lungs develops.
In case of intake of fluorides, for example fluoric sodium, there are a sialosis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains, a diarrhea, weakness, a tremor, shallow breathing. There can be spasms. Death comes from breath paralysis. If bystry death does not come, then jaundice and an anury can develop.
Getting on skin and mucous membranes, fluoric hydrogen causes damages which weight depends on its concentration. Concentration of fluoric hydrogen higher than 60% quickly cause a deep, painful burn which heals very slowly. Concentration higher than 50% damage fabrics poorly.
Long receipt (inside or in lungs) fluorine leads to development of chronic poisoning (fluorosis) which is characterized by the following symptoms: weight loss, anemia, weakness, rigidity of joints, fragility of bones, discoloration of teeth.
Reasons of Poisoning with compounds of fluorine:
Defeats by fluorine and its derivatives are possible at any way of influence: at inhalation of vapors of fluorine or fluoric hydrogen, at intake of salts of fluorine, at contact of skin with fluoric hydrogen.
Treatment of Poisoning with compounds of fluorine:
Acute management and treatment. In case of inhalation poisoning it is necessary to stop quickly intake of vapors of poison in lungs, to provide to the victim a high bed rest, to give in case of need oxygen and to take measures for fight against the developing toxic fluid lungs.
The poisonings caused by intake of fluoric hydrogen treat the same as peroral poisonings with acids.
If poisoning is connected with reception of fluorides, for example fluoric sodium, it is necessary to give to the victim inside calcium in any form: calcium gluconate solution, calcium lactate solution, milk. The recommended concentration of calcium makes 10 g in 250 ml of water. For sedimentation and removal of fluorine from intestines it is necessary to give 10 g of a gluconate of calcium and 30 g of sodium sulfate in 250 ml of water. Symptomatic treatment.
At damage of eyes chemical converters do not apply. It is necessary to wash out eyes within 5 min. a water stream, and then to carry out long (30–60 min.) irrigation by isotonic solution of sodium of chloride.
Burns of skin and mucous membranes treat plentiful washing by water. The burned place is recommended to be covered with the paste containing a magnesium oxide. Bubbles need to be opened. In case of hit of fluoric hydrogen under nails, it is necessary to remove them in the surgical way.