- Urolithiasis reasons
- Urolithiasis symptoms
- Treatment of the Urolithiasis
Urolithiasis – rather widespread heavy pathology of kidneys. Knew about it still in the ancient time: found stones in cavities of uric bodies, urinary tract even at animals. But more often they were found in people. It is known that the urolithiasis makes about 30% of all urological diseases. The disease with an identical frequency occurs as at men, and women.
Scientists claim that there is no such body in a human body which does not take part in a lithogenesis. Therefore the existing theories of emergence of an urolithiasis are divided into groups:
- disturbances of physical and chemical properties of urine;
- chronic damages and defects of the epithelial layer covering uric ways;
- bacterial infection of uric ways;
- disbolism and hormones in a human body (the increased function of epithelial bodies);
- disturbances of vitamin balance – decrease in level of vitamin A;
- disturbance of release of urine, long prone position;
- slow-moving condition of the patient;
- injuries of a head and spinal cord;
- injuries of a skeleton;
- an infection in a complex with disturbance of blood circulation in kidneys;
- long fever and decline in the ability of an organism to an uropoiesis.
The lithogenesis is promoted by also various malformations of the urinary tract sometimes adjoining to them which functions influence urination: narrowing of the uric channel, an union of superficial folds of a penis at boys, increase in a prostate at elderly men.
Thus, stagnation of urine and various factors which cause it play the main role in development of an urolithiasis. However these reasons can be not primary. The disease of uric system connected with the phenomena of stagnation and an ischuria in the lower or upper departments of urinary bodies is frequent, is not followed by formation of stones. At a considerable barrier of department of urine from a kidney increase in crystallization and formation of stones in the thickness of the kidney is observed (nipples); at outflow simplification stones disappear.
Development of an urolithiasis, obviously, can be promoted also by various anatomic changes of urinary bodies and uric system, disturbance of normal composition of urine and colloid and crystalloid balance. So-called urolithic diathesis of the inborn or acquired character which is shown by permanent changes of exchange of mineral substances are one more reason of an urolithiasis: an uraturia (salts of uric acid in urine), a fosfaturiya (salts of phosphoric acid in urine) and oksalatury (salts of oxalic acid in urine).
The main symptoms of an urolithiasis is pain, frequent painful desires to an urination (dysuria), existence in urine of blood (hamaturia), pus (pyuria), the increased body temperature, an otkhozhdeniye of concrements in urine.
If the stone is in a parenchyma of a kidney, the patient can not feel it even. The stone is diagnosed only at X-ray research. If the stone is in cups or a renal pelvis, they are mobile and disturb the patient. The stone in a kidney or an ureter is followed by feeling of weight in lumbar area or sharp pain, so-called renal colic.
Renal colic – the difficult clinical syndrome which is characterized by emergence sudden, sometimes even in a dream, a sharp back pain on the one hand with irradiation in a groin (on the ureter course), a bladder and generative organs. Renal colic arises even then when there passes the smallest stone or a crystal of uric sand which causes irritation of the sensitive nerve terminations located in a submucosal layer of cups, a pelvis or an ureter. The irritation of interoretseptor leads to reduction of smooth muscles of urinary tract and disturbance of outflow of urine. Sudden expansion of band departments of a kidney and the fibrous capsule also causes a pain syndrome. Renal colic arises suddenly. Patients at the same time accept the most various poses for pain relief.
The attack of renal colic can last from several hours to several days. The movement of a stone on urinary tract can cause painful and frequent desires to an urination, emergence of blood in urine, and at a stop in an urethra – an ischuria. At overflow of a bladder there is expressed pain in the bottom of a stomach, the general weakness, weakness, acceleration of pulse, breath, thirst, dryness in a mouth, an asthma and heartbeat. If not to give to the patient with an acute ischuria timely help, uraemia – organism poisoning with nitric substances can develop.
If the stone leaves з uric ways, or incomplete obstruction is observed, pain stops.
Characteristic sign of an urolithiasis is emergence of blood in urine – a hamaturia. The hamaturia appears at patients with a stone in kidneys, whether an ureter a bladder. In case of accession of an infection in urine there are leukocytes that demonstrates development of inflammatory process, infection of a stone. Sometimes the stone which blocked an exit from a renal pelvis creates a barrier to outflow of purulent urine. Then pus is soaked up in blood and causes high temperature, a fever and a headache.
Treatment of the Urolithiasis:
As the urolithiasis strikes all systems of an organism, use of complex therapy is necessary. Patients are treated in the surgical or conservative way. Removal of a stone quickly does not guarantee disposal of a disease yet. After operation if not to adhere to the mode and not to accept treatment, stones can be formed again.
Surgical treatment is a kidney operation or ureters, and also tool methods of extraction of stones. Operational removal is carried out when they close a gleam of a renal pelvis or an ureter and because of the big sizes cannot independently depart. Such need arises if function of kidneys decreases, and also at a pyelectasia and an ureter owing to urine outflow disturbance.
The physiotherapy exercises – specially developed set of exercises which strengthen a peristaltics of uric ways are of great importance for acceleration of an otkhozhdeniye of stones.
Stones of a bladder treat by two methods: conservative and operational. Operation is necessary for that patients who have narrowing of the uric channel, inflammatory processes in a bladder or kidneys.
Medicamentous means are the main in treatment of patients with an urolithiasis, especially if process of a lithogenesis continues.