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Atopic dermatitis


Atopic dermatitis is one of the most widespread allergic diseases at children which at the wrong treatment can pass into a chronic form and disturb throughout all life.
Atopic dermatitis is a noninfectious disease of which the long current with periodic emergence of rash on different body parts to which the skin itch always precedes is characteristic.

Symptoms of Atopic dermatitis:

The main clinical manifestations are a skin itch and characteristic inflammatory changes: reddening, dryness, a peeling, a skin thickening, traces having combed on a face, a neck, the head, pleated skin, elbow bends and popliteal spaces.
Big (obligatory) criteria of diagnosis:
    * Prurigo (itch) in the presence even the minimum manifestations on skin
    * Typical morphology and localization (a face, a neck, axillary hollows, elbow and popliteal spaces, inguinal area, a pilar part of the head, under lobes of ears)
    * Individual or family history of an atopic disease
    * Chronic recurrent current
Small criteria of diagnosis:
    * The increased level of the general and specific IgE-antibodies
    * The beginning of a disease at early children's age (up to 2 years)
    * Giperlinearnost of palms ("folded") and soles
    * Pityriasis alba (whitish spots on face skin, a shoulder girdle)
    * A follicular hyperkeratosis ("horn" papules on the side surfaces of shoulders, forearms, elbows)
    * Peeling, xerosis, ichthyosis
    * Nonspecific dermatitis of hands and legs
    * Frequent infectious damages of skin (staphylococcal, fungal, herpetic nature)
    * White dermographism
    * An itch at the increased sweating
    * Folds on the front surface of a neck
    * Dark circles around eyes (allergic shine)
Diagnosis of atopic dermatitis requires a combination of three big and not less than three small criteria.

Reasons of Atopic dermatitis:

Heredity is the main reason for atopic dermatitis. So, if one of parents or the immediate family has an atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma or allergic rhinitis, then probability of development in the child of atopic dermatitis-50 of %. If both parents have such illness, then with probability of 80% the disease will be transmitted also to their child.
Among the allergic factors leading to development of a disease, doctors note sensitivity to food-borne allergens (protein of cow's milk, ovalbumin) at baby and early age. At the senior age the leading role in development of a disease is played by inhalation allergens – house dust and the microscopic mites which are contained in it, epidermis of animals, disputes of fungi, pollen of plants, and also a parasitic infection and nonspecific irritants (clothes from synthetics, deodorants, hard water, sharp fluctuations of temperature and humidity, an emotional and exercise stress).
Some drugs can become a cause of illness also:  antibiotics, sulfanamide drugs, local anesthetics, group B vitamins, etc.

Treatment of Atopic dermatitis:

    1. Dietotherapy and measures for control of external environment
    2. System pharmacotherapy
          *  antihistaminic drugs
          *  membrane stabilizing drugs
          *  the drugs normalizing function of digestive organs
          *  vitamins
          *  immunomodulatory drugs
          *  the drugs regulating function of a nervous system
          *  the drugs containing unsaturated fatty acids
          *  antibiotics
          *  system corticosteroids (according to special indications)
    3. Outside therapy
    4. Rehabilitation

Drugs, drugs, tablets for treatment of Atopic dermatitis:

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