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General information about a disease

Ярко выраженный кишечный амебиаз

The amebiasis (amoebic dysentery, amoebic colitis) is an infectious disease which main display is damage of a large intestine and development of abscesses in some other bodies (most often in a liver). The disease is caused by pathogenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. They are widespread in the countries with tropical and subtropical climate that is natural, considering the low level of sanitation in these regions. However, today the intestinal amebiasis is an important medical and social problem and for Russia as increase in number of the infected patients leads to growth of lethal outcomes, especially among children.

To understand everything gravity of a situation is enough to be known that carriers of an infection are about 480 million people. Every tenth diseased with an intestinal amebiasis suffers from abenteric abscesses and colitis, and in 4% of cases such patients die because of the wrong diagnosis and untimely medical care. Let's notice also that the intestines amebiasis intensively extends among the population of the developed countries under the influence of migration, foreign tourism and deterioration in an economic situation.

Classification of an amebiasis and symptoms of a disease

The amebiasis activator – a dysenteric or gistolitichesky amoeba of Entamoeba histolityca. She lives in a large intestine of the person, is capable to cause necroses, emergence of ulcers, to get into mucous and submucosal covers. Depending on type of the activator and its localization in an organism, doctors allocate an intestinal and abenteric amebiasis.

One of the most common clinical forms of an intestinal amebiasis is dysenteric colitis. It has acute and chronic character with an incubation interval from 1 week to 3-4 months. Main symptoms of an amebiasis of this form:

  • the speeded-up chair (to 4-6 times a day);
  • bloody or mucous inclusions in fecal masses;
  • fervescence (at late stages);
  • pulling or colicy pains in the lower part of a stomach;
  • painful tenesmus.

If at the person the started amebiasis develops, symptoms of an infection are followed by symptoms of intoxication, a loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting. At an acute current the stomach of the patient becomes soft, the acute pain at a palpation of a large intestine is felt. After 4-6 weeks symptoms of an amebiasis fade, there occurs remission which can last both 1-2 weeks, and several months. If not to take a measure for treatment of a disease – the chronic amebiasis of intestines which treatment is complicated because of emergence all of the new and new centers of an infection develops.

The chronic amebiasis proceeds in the form of continuous or recurrent forms. In either case at patients are observed:

  • exhaustion because of lack of appetite;
  • decrease in working capacity;
  • development of an asthenic syndrome;
  • increase in the sizes of a liver;
  • vitamin and proteinaceous and power deficiency;
  • unpleasant taste in a mouth;
  • pallor of integuments;
  • mild and average pains in ileal area;
  • the expressed symptoms of cardiovascular pathology (tachycardia, priglushennost of cardiac sounds, lability of pulse).

In the absence of treatment, the infection of an amebiasis leads to perforation of walls of a large intestine, bleedings, appendicitis, development of purulent peritonitis, gangrene. The fastest operation as, otherwise, the amebiasis leads to death in 100% of the registered cases is necessary for such patients.

The abenteric form of an amebiasis results from hematogenous or direct entering of strains from guts. At the diagnosis the chronic intestinal amebiasis, symptoms most often demonstrate damage of a liver. This process is followed:

  • increase in the sizes of body;
  • high temperature (up to 39 degrees);
  • formation of abscesses;
  • stethalgias;
  • fever, fever;
  • availability of pus and blood in a phlegm.

In recent years many cases when the amebiasis influenced not only a liver, but also other vitals are recorded: urinogenital and respiratory system, integuments, heart. Respectively, at the first adverse symptoms you should see a doctor and to undergo comprehensive examination.

Amebiasis – treatment of a disease

Амебиаз лечение тинидазоломAll drugs used in the course of treatment of an intestinal amebiasis are subdivided into two groups – contact and system fabric amoebocides. The first are applied in the presence of a noninvasive amebiasis and at final stages of treatment to elimination of the remained amoebas. Besides, contact (prosvetny) amoebocides are demanded when it is necessary to take preventive measures for prevention of spread of an infection. Treat drugs of this group: этофамид, паромомицин, клефамид, diloxanide. At the diagnosis the invasive amebiasis, treatment assumes reception of system fabric amoebocides – metronidazole, a seknidazol, Tinidazolum. At severe forms of an amebiasis antibacterial drugs, active in relation to intestinal microflora are recommended.

The developed abscesses (more than 6 cm) need aspiration (transdermal drainage). This procedure is necessary for prevention of a rupture of abscess and also when the chemotherapy of a gut does not result in the expected results. Corticosteroids an amebiasis – are contraindicated to patients with the diagnosis as they are followed by numerous complications.

In general, on condition of early diagnosis and adequate medicamentous therapy, the intestines amebiasis completely recovers within several months after an initiation of treatment.

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