Since the moment when the child becomes a school student, his sight begins to be exposed to the strengthened loadings which are supplemented with viewing of animated films and long computer games. During this period of life of the child development of not completely created organs of sight, it is very easy to break the excessive loading which is aggravated with lack of a work-rest schedule. As a rule, and occurs: according to WHO statistics, every fourth child of school age has these or those diseases of eyes among which short-sightedness is most widespread. On belief of doctors, problems with sight only of a small part of them have hereditary character – the majority long for fault of the parents who incorrectly built a day regimen of the child.
To keep sight of the school student acute, ophthalmologists advise to take several basic rules which will allow to reduce risk of emergence of eye diseases in the child into account.
Specialists do not recommend to subject children to school loadings earlier, than the tsiliarny muscle of eyes which is responsible for ability to see objects at different distances will be created. Its development, as a rule, comes to an end by 7-8 years, and to this age you should not test it for durability. Statistically, among the children who became first graders at 6-year age short-sighted is twice more, than among the school students who went to the first class in 7 or 8 years.
In the absence of problems with sight the child has to do a break in occupations each 40 minutes, and at short-sightedness – everyone half an hour. During 10-15 minute rest it is impossible to watch TV, to read, play on the computer or to be engaged in other types of activity connected with tension of eyes. During these periods it is better to play outdoor games.
Duration of house lessons for children of elementary grades should not exceed 1 hour, middle classes – 2 hours. If the child attends additional classes, it is worth remembering that they should not last over one and a half hours in school days and 3 hours – on the weekend. At the same time open classrooms should not begin before the 8th morning and come to an end after the 8th evening.
To strengthen immunity, it is desirable for child to happen every day in the fresh air, playing outdoor games or playing sports, but at the same time it is necessary to avoid traumatic sports. Bruises of the head of varying severity can cause short-sightedness or aggravate it if it already exists.
Computer games – favourite pastime of modern children which, being uncontrolled, can lead to emergence of a computer visual syndrome: disturbance which is expressed in dryness, reddening of eyes, frequent blinkings, difficulties with focusing of sight at different distances, etc. The long tension of sight which amplified a screen pulsation can become a basis of development of a spasm of accommodation or lengthening of an eyeglobe and, as a result, to short-sightedness.
To prevent fatigue of eyes and the related diseases, the child should respect the rules of continuous work at the computer established the SanPiN:
The correct organization of a workplace will allow to lower load of sight of the child a little:
Insidiousness of the computer is that, having been fond of a game, children do not notice fatigue though it is established that the first symptoms of overfatigue of sight (absent-mindedness, decrease in frequency of blinkings) arise after 15 minutes of work, and after 25-30 minutes certain signs of a vision disorder can be already recorded by the specialist.
To parents, concerned health of the child, it is not necessary to allow it to play on the computer in the general set over 1 hour a day, whenever possible it is necessary to distract the school student other occupations.
In order to avoid problems with sight the workplace of the school student has to be well lit. Except natural lighting, at the room there have to be artificial light sources in the form of the basic (chandelier) and additional - the 40-60 W desk lamp. It is better to have it for the child right-handed person at the left, for the lefthander, on the contrary, on the right. At the same time it is important to combine lighting sources correctly: in night-time it is inadmissible to be engaged only by the light of a chandelier or a lamp, and it is desirable to include only a lamp in the afternoon.
Optimum distance to eyes during the reading and the letter – not less than 35-40 cm that the child needs to consider at the choice of a desk. Besides, in operating time the school student should not stoop therefore the chair should not be too high and soft.
It is no secret that the strong, hardy constitution is less subject to diseases including to diseases of eyes. The child's diet, vitamin-rich and microelements, will provide optimal conditions for an eye retina that will help the school student to maintain the sight. Cottage cheese, kefir, beef, meat of a rabbit, products with the high content of vitamin A (carrots, apricots, pumpkin, a citrus), boiled fish, and also berries (bilberry, a cranberry, cowberry) and greens (fennel, parsley) are most useful to these purposes.
In breaks between occupations it is desirable not just to relax, and to execute several simple exercises for eyes. The gymnastics will allow to prevent emergence of a myopia, and to short-sighted children – to prevent its further development. Five-minute exercises improve blood circulation, relaxing oculomotor muscles and saving fatigue eyes.
It is important that exercises were carried out with pleasure and without tension – in this case daily charging will become excellent prevention of problems with sight at the school student.
Sometimes the fatigue of eyes arises because of a lack of a night dream during which the child does not manage to have a rest and be recovered. It is important that the school student did not go to bed after 22 hours, and did not rise before the 7th morning. In certain cases deficit of a night dream can be compensated by day rest after school.
That the fatigue of eyes did not appear in the child's life together with long lessons and computer games, parents should organize a daily routine of the school student, alternating a dream and wakefulness, a game in the fresh air and lessons, sports activities and passive rest. If competently to plan day of the child, having filled it with interesting leisure, problems with sight will not be.
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