According to data of World Health Organization, the cataract is diagnosed almost for 7% of the population of Earth. The statistics of incidence is considered not full as at an initial stage the illness, as a rule, does not cause to the person of special inconveniences, and many diseased sees doctors not at once. The cataract is not only one of the most widespread ophthalmologic illnesses, but also the reason of a half of cases of loss of sight.
In spite of the fact that this disease is very well studied, many delusions, the most popular of which we present in this article, are connected with it.
It's not true. About a half of cases of a cataract is diagnosed aged from 39 up to 65 years. Women get sick twice more often than men. In more old age the illness develops at 75% of people. Factors of developing of a cataract are the diabetes mellitus and other disbolism, avitaminosis, bad ecological conditions, some chronic diseases, reception of a number of medicines, injuries of eyes. It is considered that the risk of development of a disease increases if organs of sight are exposed to long intensive radiation by ultraviolet.
The cataract can be and inborn: it is shown at kids whose mothers during pregnancy accepted alcohol or steroids, transferred influence of a penetrating radiation or infectious diseases.
The delusion arose because a pupil of a sore eye it becomes noticeable lighter, as if becoming covered by a foggy film, and also because of disease symptoms: the patient at the same time sees indistinctly, outlines of objects are distorted, perception of color is broken (paints look dim). To start an illness perception of the visible picture in slightly indistinct look as though the person looks through wet glass, a film or streams of water is characteristic. Sometimes bifurcation of the image meets. Pain is absent, but visual acuity significantly decreases.
Actually, the cataract represents a phacoscotasmus and loss of elasticity by it.
If the disease is caused by such factors as disturbance of metabolism or an injury of an eye, there is an opportunity to slow down its development by means of adequate treatment of a basic disease. An age cataract (especially in the presence of genetic predisposition) it is impossible to warn. From this does not follow that an illness you should not treat: in time the performed operation and correctly picked up postoperative therapy, undoubtedly, will help to avoid complications.
Contrary to popular belief, the work connected with tension of the visual device does not render on probability of development of a cataract of influence.
Today the main effective method of controlling with a cataract is operation on removal of a crystalline lens and replacement with its synthetic analog. Scientists continue development of drugs, and there are very encouraging intermediate results, but still therapeutic means capable to turn back process of a phacoscotasmus is not applied in broad clinical practice. Drops which offer pharmaceutical firms now at best can slow down a course of a disease slightly.
It's not true much delusion, how many outdated idea of elimination of a problem. It remained since those times when because of technical features of carrying out operation validly it was difficult to doctors to carry out it on early terms of development of a cataract.
Implementation of modern high-scientific technologies allowed to lift limits of this sort. Today ophthalmologists successfully operate a cataract of any degree of a maturity. The term of purpose of the procedure depends only on as far as decrease in visual acuity influences quality of life of the patient.
The most progressive and low-traumatic method of removal of the struck crystalline lens is its careful crushing by ultrasound. The turned-out splinters delete through a microscopic section on a cornea. Operation does not demand suture and keeping of the patient in a hospital.
Sometimes after the procedure there is a complication: behind again established synthetic crystalline lens the thin plenochka (a so-called secondary cataract) is formed. It is removed by means of the laser in out-patient conditions.
So happens, but not always. Need for additional correction of sight after operation depends on type of the established synthetic crystalline lens and existence at the patient of other ophthalmologic problems.
In certain cases the dimmed crystalline lens is deleted without replacement. Such patients are forced all life to use very strong lenses. Besides, cataract surgery solves a problem of transparency of the basic optical element of an organ of sight, but is not reflected in a condition of eye muscles and all device which is responsible for accommodation accuracy in any way. It, as a rule, worsens with age. Therefore most of the people operated concerning replacement of a crystalline lens nevertheless wear glasses.
The general for all is only the principle of intervention. Other parameters of operation (technology of carrying out, model of a synthetic crystalline lens, etc.) depend on the general condition of the patient, existence of associated diseases and that is important, its financial opportunities. For example, such procedure as an ultrasonic fakoemulsifikation (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission), is carried out by means of very expensive equipment and therefore cannot be budget.
Synthetic crystalline lenses (differently – intraocular lenses or IOL) can have various properties and cost. They are made as at the domestic enterprises, and abroad. At a preparation for surgery the doctor is obliged to offer the patient an optimal variant of IOL and to explain how the new crystalline lens will work. After an extract from medical institution to the patient the passport of the established lens is issued.
Today cataract surgeries are performed in most clinics of our country. The technology of intervention is perfectly fulfilled, doctors accumulated extensive experience. The procedure is considered one of the safest therefore you should not be afraid of it. On the contrary, having felt sight falling, it is necessary to ask for medical care urgently. It will give the chance to avoid serious complications (up to a total blindness) and to recover the lost quality of life.
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