Producer: Hexal AG (Geksal AG) Germany
Code of automatic telephone exchange: M01AB05
Release form: Firm dosage forms. Tablets.
General characteristics. Structure:
Active agent: sodium diclofenac – 75 mg or 150 mg.
Excipients: lactoses monohydrate, methylhydroxypropyl cellulose, microcrystallic cellulose, calcium hydrophosphate a dihydrate, corn starch, sodium starch glikolit, silicon dioxide colloid, magnesium stearate, iron oxide red.
Diclofenac possesses the antiinflammatory, anesthetizing and febrifugal action. Not selectively oppressing cyclooxygenase 1 and 2, breaks metabolism of arachidonic acid, reduces amount of prostaglandins in the inflammation center. At rheumatic diseases antiinflammatory and analgeziruyushchy effect of diclofenac promotes considerable reduction of expressiveness of pain, morning constraint, a swelling of joints that improves a functional condition of a joint. At injuries, in the postoperative period diclofenac reduces pain and inflammatory hypostasis.
Pharmacokinetics. Absorption – bystry and full, food slows down absorption speed for 1-2 hours and reduces the maximum concentration twice. In case of administration of drug with food the maximum concentration are observed on average in 5-6 hours.
Change of pharmacokinetics of diclofenac against the background of repeated introduction is not noted, does not kumulirut.
Communication with proteins of plasma – more than 99% (the most part contacts albumine). Gets into synovial fluid; the maximum concentration in synovial fluid is observed on 2-4 h later, than in plasma. An elimination half-life from synovial fluid of 3-6 h (concentration of active agent in synovial fluid in 4-6 h after administration of drug is higher, than in plasma, and remains higher during 12 h). The interrelation of concentration of drug in synovial fluid with clinical performance of drug is not found out.
Metabolism: 50% of active agent are exposed to metabolism during "the first passing" through a liver. Metabolism results from a repeated or single hydroxylation and a konjyugirovaniye with glucuronic acid. The fermental P450 CYP2C9 system takes part in metabolism of drug. Pharmacological activity of metabolites is lower, than diclofenac.
The system clearance makes 350 ml/min., distribution volume – 550 ml/kg. Plasma elimination half-life – 2 h 65% of the entered dose is removed in the form of metabolites by kidneys; less than 1% are removed in an invariable look, other part of a dose is removed in the form of metabolites with bile.
At patients with the expressed renal failure (clearance of creatinine less than 10 ml/min.) removal of metabolites with bile increases, at the same time increase in their concentration in blood is not observed.
At patients with chronic hepatitis or the compensated cirrhosis pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac do not change.
Diclofenac gets into breast milk.
Indications to use:
- Musculoskeletal system diseases (a pseudorheumatism, the psoriasis, juvenile chronic arthritis ankylosing a spondylarthritis; gouty arthritis, rheumatic defeat of soft tissues, an osteoarthrosis of peripheral joints and a backbone, including with a radicular syndrome, a tendovaginitis, a bursitis).
- Pain syndrome of weak or moderate expressiveness: neuralgia, a mialgiya, a lumbar ishialgia, the posttraumatic pain syndrome which is followed by an inflammation, postoperative pain, a headache, migraine, альгодисменорея, an adnexitis, a proctitis, a dentagra.
- As a part of complex therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases of an ear, a throat, a nose with the expressed pain syndrome (pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis).
- Feverish syndrome.
Route of administration and doses:
Inside, without chewing, washing down with a small amount of water, as a rule, in time or after food.
Tablets of 75 mg: on 1 tablet 1-2 times a day.
Tablets of 150 mg: on 1 tablet a day.
The maximum daily dose of drug – 150 mg.
Features of use:
During treatment it is necessary to carry out by drug systematic control of a picture of peripheral blood, function of a liver, kidneys, a research a calla on availability of blood.
The patients accepting drug need to abstain from the types of activity demanding the increased concentration of attention and bystry mental and motor reactions, alcohol intake.
More often than 1% - abdominal pains, feeling of abdominal distention, diarrhea, nausea, a lock, a meteorism, increase in activity of "hepatic" enzymes, a round ulcer with possible complications (bleeding, perforation), gastrointestinal bleeding.
More rare than 1% - vomiting, jaundice, a melena, emergence of blood to Calais, damage of a gullet, aphthous stomatitis, dryness of a mouth and mucous membranes, hepatitis (perhaps fulminantny current), a liver necrosis, cirrhosis, a gepatorenalny syndrome, appetite change, pancreatitis, holetsistopankreatit, colitis.
More often than 1% - a headache, dizziness.
More rare than 1% - a sleep disorder, drowsiness, a depression, irritability, aseptic meningitis (is more often at patients with a system lupus erythematosus and other general diseases of connecting fabric), spasms, weakness, a disorientation, dreadful dreams, feeling of fear.
More often than 1% - a skin itch, skin rash.
More rare than 1% - an alopecia, urticaria, eczema, toxic dermatitis, a mnogoformny exudative erythema, including Stephens-Johnson's syndrome, a toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell's disease), the increased photosensitivity, punctulate hemorrhages.
More often than 1% - a liquid delay.
More rare than 1% - a nephrotic syndrome, a proteinuria, an oliguria, a hamaturia, intersticial nephrite, a papillary necrosis, an acute renal failure, an azotemia.
Bodies of a hemopoiesis and immune system:
More rare than 1% - anemia (including hemolitic and aplastic anemias), a leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, an eosinophilia, an agranulocytosis, a Werlhof's disease, deterioration in a course of infectious processes (development of a necrotizing fasciitis).
Interaction with other medicines:
Increases concentration in plasma of digoxin, a methotrexate, drugs of lithium and cyclosporine.
Reduces effect of diuretics, against the background of kaliysberegayushchy diuretics the risk of a hyperpotassemia amplifies; against the background of anticoagulants, thrombolytic means (an alteplaza, Streptokinasa, an urokinase) – risk of bleedings (is more often from digestive tract).
Reduces effects hypotensive and hypnagogues.
Increases probability of emergence of side effects of other NPVP and glucocorticosteroid means (bleeding in digestive tract), toxicity of a methotrexate and nephrotoxicity of cyclosporine.
Acetylsalicylic acid reduces concentration of diclofenac in blood.
Simultaneous use with paracetamol increases risk of development of nephrotoxic effects of diclofenac.
Reduces effect of hypoglycemic means.
Tsefamandol, цефоперазон, цефотетан, valproic acid and пликамицин increase the frequency of development of a prothrombinopenia.
Cyclosporine and drugs of gold increase influence of diclofenac on synthesis of prostaglandins in kidneys that increases nephrotoxicity.
Co-administration with ethanol, colchicine, corticotropin and drugs of a St. John's Wort increases risk of development of bleedings in digestive tract.
Diclofenac strengthens effect of the drugs causing a photosensitization.
The drugs blocking canalicular secretion increase concentration in diclofenac plasma, thereby, increasing its toxicity.
Hypersensitivity (including to other NPVP), digestive tract erosive cankers (in an aggravation phase), bleedings from digestive tract, "aspirinovy" asthma, disturbances of a hemopoiesis, disturbance of a hemostasis (including hemophilia), pregnancy, children's age (up to 18 years), the lactation period.
Anemia, bronchial asthma, congestive heart failure, arterial hypertension, edematous syndrome, liver or renal failure, alcoholism, inflammatory diseases of intestines, erosive and ulcer diseases of digestive tract out of an aggravation, a diabetes mellitus, a state after extensive surgical interventions, the induced porphyria, advanced age, a diverticulitis, general diseases of connecting fabric.
Gastric lavage, administration of absorbent carbon, symptomatic therapy, artificial diuresis.
The hemodialysis is ineffective.
At a temperature not above 25 °C. In the place unavailable to children.
According to the recipe
Tablets of the prolonged action of 75 or 150 mg. On 10 tablets in the blister. 1, 2, 5 or 10 blisters in a cardboard pack together with the application instruction.