The Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) are plants or animals (as a rule, agricultural) to whose genotype purposeful changes were made. Opposition of supporters and opponents of inclusion of such organisms in foodstuff always was very acute. Not only scientists and dietitians, but also a large number of the people who are not specialists in this question are involved in active disputes today.
The negative opinion of inhabitants on the products containing GMO forms under the influence of an anti-advertizing. Usually it is extended by the producers who are not interested in hit of similar products on the market. In consciousness of many Russians the products containing GMO strongly are associated with the food hazardous to health. About 83% of residents of our country agree that such products cannot be used. There are also other delusions about it. Today we want to acquaint readers with the most known of these myths.
The mankind is engaged in selection of the cultivated animal and agricultural plants from an extreme antiquity. That fact, activity such received theoretical justification, did not influence its main receptions in any way: selection of the individuals having necessary properties in economy and attempts of strengthening of these qualities in posterity by optimum crossing. All nowadays existing cultivars of plants and breed of animals were quite so created. At the same time the scientists who were engaged in selection work in the 20th century widely used also such ways of change of the genetic device of initial organisms as a mutagenesis (provoking of emergence of mutations by means of x-ray radiation or influence by dangerous toxins).
Process of creation of genetically modified organisms, in fact, pursues the same aims. Just at the same time more effective approach which became possible owing to development of science and technologies is used. The method of transgenes is in most cases applied. Its essence in the following: the sites of DNA which are responsible for development of the necessary signs are isolated and built in the genetic device of a changeable organism. The result turns out the same: the animals and plants having the set properties.
GMO, as well as the organisms removed by ways of traditional selection arise by modification of the genetic device. Just in the first case scientists do not spend excess time for selection, and the set of unpromising options therefore the result turns out quicker and costs of its creation do not fulfill is lower.
Each GMO is precisely known what site of its DNA underwent change and as it affected final properties. All genetically modified organisms are subject to obligatory certification. In a sense, in detail it is much simpler to study effects of inclusion of their fabrics in foodstuff, than to do the similar procedure with the organisms received by ways of traditional selection, changes in which happen accidental.
Genes (regardless of their origin) cannot "be built in an organism at all", getting to it with food. Everything that we eat, decays in a digestive tract to elementary molecules of proteins and carbohydrates. If it was differently, it dread to think to what mix of plants and animals people would become similar.
In reality the situation is exactly the opposite. Many hypermarkets of a plant were removed for the purpose of an exception of toxics of cultivation process. Quite so on fields there were grades of potatoes which tops of vegetable is inedible for potato beetles and corn to which weeds do not adjoin. It is absolutely safe to eat them, and in them many times it is less harmful "chemistry" than in the plants removed in the traditional ways. In cotton-growing regions today actively cultivate hypermarket cotton which is not damaged by a cotton sovka. The fabrics made of it do not contain the remains of insecticides, toxic and for the person.
Complaints of this sort, as a rule, cause berries and fruit which long time were considered seasonal, and now are on sale at all seasons of the year. Actually, this case has no relation to hypermarket to organisms at all.
Sweet and unique aroma all favourite berries (for example, strawberries) are caused by destruction of cell walls and emergence on their place of sugars. The firms making berries commercially and interested in long storage of products carry specially out selection for the purpose of selection of grades at which process of such destruction is slowed down. These berries almost do not spoil and reach the consumer in a fine state, but their taste leaves much to be desired.
It's not true. Thanks to genetic engineering from many plants which are eaten the genes responsible for allergenicity were withdrawn. Each newly created organism undergoes careful testing regarding a possibility of provoking of allergic reactions.
As for cancerogenic properties of hypermarket of organisms, still there is no research which result would allow to claim that similar activity exists. Experiments such were made repeatedly, but dependence between growth of quantity of tumors and consumption of the products containing GMO, was never revealed.
Hypermarket organisms essentially differ in nothing from the animals and plants received by means of selection or living in the wild nature. Just at traditionally removed types necessary qualities are fixed after selection of accidentally arisen changes of a genotype, and in a case with GMO these changes are caused purposefully. In other words, qualities are precisely added to structure of hypermarket of an organism useful (or are excluded harmful).
Using genetic engineering, it is possible to create organisms by means of which it is possible to solve serious problems. There is enough of fact that there was already an opportunity to grow up the cereals and vegetables having the increased productivity or richer vitamin structure. It is vital for those regions of Earth where most of the population true starves or eats is so uniform that is doomed to suffer from the diseases caused by it.
Genetically modified plants can win the zones which before were not used for agriculture because of unfavorable climatic or soil conditions. Perhaps, genetic engineering will present to people and the vegetable products having absolutely unexpected useful properties which will facilitate the solution of power and other pressing problems over time.
Any cultivated plants cultivated commercially exert impact on the surrounding wild nature. In case of hypermarket of plants this influence more often happens useful, than harmful as many of similar organisms do not need chemical protection against weeds, diseases and wreckers. As for statements that the modified plants kill useful insects, they obviously treat the category of horror stories.
Very doubtfully and opinion that hypermarkets of a plant can переопыляться with wild types. The probability of such events is so low that about overgrowing of lands the new types which resulted from similar crossing, out of the question.
Genetically modified organisms appear as a result of purposeful reasonable activity. Process of their creation, and also property of the received versions carefully are controlled. Applying methods of genetic engineering, the mankind will be able to solve a hunger problem, to improve quality of life of millions of people. To you it is not necessary to be afraid of use in food of the products containing GMO: they are not capable to do harm to health, and in many cases happen much more useful and safe, than the food received in the traditional ways.
The 74-year-old resident of Australia James Harrison became blood donor about 1000 times. It has a rare blood group which antibodies help to survive the newborn with a severe form of anemia. Thus, the Australian saved about two million children.
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