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Азотемия - лечение и профилактикаThe increased content in blood of the person of nitrogenous products of exchange, preferential proteinaceous origin to which leads disturbance of secretory function of kidneys is called an azotemia.

Distinguish three types of an azotemia – prerenalny, renal and prerenal, differing in the origin reasons, however possessing similar characteristics, namely:

  • Increase in an urea nitrogen in blood;
  • Reduction in the rate of glomerular filtering of kidneys;
  • Increase in concentration of creatinine in serum.

For definition like azotemia in vitro on the basis of blood test define an urea nitrogen ratio index to creatinine. So, if the indicator less than 15 – at the patient is renal type of a disease, more than 15 – prerenalny, much more 15 – prerenal.

Azotemia reasons

As it was told above, in medicine distinguish three types of a disease differing from each other in an origin. So the prerenalny azotemia is a consequence of disturbance of blood supply of kidneys because of:

  • Development of heart failure;
  • Hemorrhages;
  • Shock;
  • Decrease in volume of the circulating blood.

Renal are the main reasons for an azotemia:

  • Acute renal failure;
  • Parenchyma of kidneys (glomerulonephritis);
  • Acute tubular necrosis.

Uraemia is a consequence of this type of a disease.

The main reasons for an azotemia prerenal any mechanical obstacles of outflow of urine – stones in an ureter, tumors of a bladder or a prostate, a prelum of an ureter as the uterus increased in a size (act at pregnancy).

Azotemia symptoms

The condition of the patient at an azotemia worsens in process of development of other symptoms of a basic disease, and also increase of quantity of nitrogenous products of exchange in blood. The main symptoms of an azotemia are:

  • Oliguria (sharp decrease in a diuresis);
  • Anury (termination of release of urine);
  • Dryness in a mouth;
  • Tendency to bleedings;
  • Constant thirst;
  • Puffiness (the anasarca is not excluded);
  • Fluctuations of arterial pressure;
  • Uraemia;
  • Tachycardia.

The disease also causes a number of symptoms from various systems of an organism, namely:

  • Nausea, acid ammoniac smell from a mouth, vomiting, profuse ponosa, dyspepsia and anemia (system of digestion);
  • Twitching of muscles of hands and legs, tremor, change of acute excitement by oppression and vice versa, drowsiness, general depression and disturbance of process of breath (nervous system);
  • Itch and xeroderma which cause to the patient discomfort and tortures, up to a schesyvaniye and a tear of some sites of skin during sleep (integuments).

Also distinguish apathy, block and strong weakness of the patient from symptoms of an azotemia.

Diagnosis of a disease

For statement of the right diagnosis and the subsequent treatment the patient should address for consultation the nephrologist or the urologist. Doctors will channelize on performing the general blood test and urine, and also will define an index of a ratio of quantity of an urea nitrogen to creatinine that will allow to learn with what type of an azotemia the patient is sick.

Treatment of an azotemia

At timely diagnosis and use of adequate treatment of an azotemia the probability of an absolute recovery is maximum. In cases when the patient asks for medical assistance with a considerable delay, to achieve an absolute recovery much more difficult, even at intensive treatment and correction the threat of a chronic renal failure is high.

Treatment of an azotemia usually includes:

  • Азотемия - причины и видыSymptomatic therapy;
  • Hemodialysis;
  • Elimination of an origin;
  • Use of drugs which effect is directed to normalization of arterial pressure and improvement of work of cardiovascular system.

Prevention of a disease

So, the azotemia arises owing to disturbance of work of kidneys which leads to accumulation of nitrogenous products of exchange in blood. Allocate three types of a disease, each of which possesses characteristics, similar to two other types, however differs in origins.

For prevention of a disease it is recommended to avoid overcooling and to treat timely diseases of kidneys and urethral system. Independent diagnosis and treatment of an azotemia can lead to a chronic renal failure therefore at manifestation of the first symptoms it is necessary to ask for the help the specialist.

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