Main > Human organs> Throat


Гортань человекаThe throat represents an upper part of a respiratory tube which is located in a front part of a neck at the level of 4-7 vertebrae. The throat connects to a hypoglossal bone a shchitopodjyazychny membrane and from sides adjoins to shchitopodjyazychny gland.

General characteristic of a throat

The throat carries out an important role in formation of sounds and the speech of the person. The air arriving through a throat causes fluctuations of phonatory bands and forms sounds. The circulating air flow in an oral cavity, a throat and a throat is regulated by a nervous system and allows the person to speak and sing.

The throat functions as the office of the movement which has the cartilages connected to the ligaments and joints of muscles allowing to regulate phonatory bands and change of a glottis.

Throat structure

The structure of a throat represents a skeleton from unpaired and pair cartilages.

Unpaired cartilages are

  • thyroid cartilage which consists of the wide plates located under a certain corner;
  • the cricoid is a basis of a throat and connects to a trachea by means of a sheaf;
  • the epiglottidean cartilage closes an entrance to a throat at meal and is stuck to the surface of a thyroid cartilage by means of a sheaf.

Pair cartilages:

  • arytenoid cartilages have the form of a pyramid and connect to a plate of a cartilage of cricoid type;
  • corniculatus cartilages have the form of a cone and are located in a cherpalonadgortanny fold;
  • wedge-shaped cartilages have the form of a wedge and are located over corniculatus cartilages.

Cartilages of a throat are connected among themselves by joints and ligaments, and the free space is filled with membranes. At the movement of air there is a tension of phonatory bands and each of cartilages plays a part in formation of sounds.

The movement of all cartilages of a throat is regulated by front muscles of a neck. These muscles change position of an epiglottidean cartilage at breath, the speech, singing and swallowing.

The structure of a throat is directed to performance of speech function and ensuring activity of the voice device.

In a throat muscles of the voice device which share on are located:

  • muscles of relaxation of phonatory bands – the voice muscle intended for narrowing of a glottis and the shchitocherpalovidny muscle which is located in a front side part of a thyroid cartilage;
  • muscles of tension of phonatory bands – a cricothyroid muscle;
  • muscles of narrowing of a glottis - a side perstnecherpalovidny muscle which changes position of an arytenoid cartilage, and a cross arytenoid muscle which pulls together arytenoid cartilages and pulls them;
  • muscles of expansion of a glottis – the back perstnecherpalovidny muscle which rotates an arytenoid cartilage and changes the provision of its voice shoots.

Throat diseases

Diseases of a throat have inflammatory, infectious and allergic character.

Строение гортаниThe following belongs to the most widespread diseases of a throat.

Acute laryngitis which is followed by an inflammation of a mucous membrane of a throat. This disease results from exogenous and internal causes. The irritation of a mucous membrane of a throat, overcooling, impacts on a mucous membrane of harmful substances (gas, chemicals, dust, etc.), reception of very cold or very hot food and liquid act as exogenous factors. The lowered immunity, a serious illness of the alimentary system, an allergy, a throat mucosal atrophy belong to internal causes.

Laryngitis is often shown at teenage age, especially at boys at a heterophonia. The bacterial flora – a streptococcus, an influenza virus, a rhinovirus, a coronavirus can be the serious cause for development of acute laryngitis.

Infiltrative laryngitis is followed by an inflammation of a mucous membrane of a throat and glubzhelezhashchy fabrics. Inflammatory process takes place in sheaves, a nadkhryashchnitsa and muscles of the voice device. Infections which get into throat tissues at infectious diseases and injuries are the main reason for infiltrative laryngitis.

Guttural quinsy is an infectious disease of acute type which is followed by defeat of lymphatic tissues of throat, a thickening of a mucous membrane and an inflammation of a lingual surface of an epiglottis.

Throat hypostasis often develops at allergic reactions of various etiology. Hypostasis of a throat is shown in the form of inflammatory process of a mucous membrane and narrowing of a gleam of a throat. This disease is result of other inflammatory or infectious process in a throat.

Acute hypostasis of a throat can develop under the influence of inflammatory processes, acute infectious diseases, injuries and tumors, allergic reactions and pathological processes which take place in a throat and a trachea.

The stenosis of a throat leads to narrowing of a gleam and interferes with air circulation in low respiratory tracts. At a stenosis of a throat the risk of asphyxia as a result of insufficient passing of air to lungs is high.

Stenoses of a throat of laringichesky and trakheichesky type are considered and treated as a uniform disease. At a rapid current of a disease and emergence of high risk of heavy disturbances of respiratory function the emergency medical care is required.

Treatment of a throat and recovery of a voice

Major factors of weakening of sheaves and losses of a voice are:

  • viral infection;
  • the inflammation caused by tension of sheaves and their overload;
  • latent injury on chemical or other production;
  • loss of a voice because of nerves, owing to neurosis;
  • irritation of sheaves acute products, hot or cold drinks.

Treatment of a throat is performed, depending on the reason and type of a disease. Usually the voice is recovered without medical treatment, over time sheaves have a rest from tension and are recovered.

It is possible to allocate several main ways of recovery of a voice:

  • elimination of an irritant or allergen (dust, smoke, spicy food, cold liquid, etc.);
  • treatment of diseases of a throat - laryngitis, pharyngitis, quinsy;
  • avoiding of tension of sheaves, silence within several days;
  • rest and heat, compresses on area of a neck.

If the inflammation of the copular device and a throat has chronic character, then it is necessary to ask for the help the otolaryngologist, to complete a medicamentous course of treatment of a throat and to do special exercises for recovery of a voice and strengthening of sheaves.

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