Neurology – the section of medicine considering diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, mechanisms of their development, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. It is the extensive area including anatomy, physiology, embryology, histology, therapy (neuropathology) and surgery (neurosurgery). Diseases and injuries of a head, spinal cord, all types of disturbances of a motive and sensitive innervation fall within the scope of consideration of neurology.

Diseases of a nervous system differ in huge variety, plurality of symptoms and manifestations because of what it is frequent, especially at early stages, are accepted to diseases of other systems. So, nervous diseases can be shown by dermatological symptomatology, pains of not clear character, disorders of digestive tract, cardiovascular system, urinogenital frustration and deviations in a mental state. High qualification of the doctor and exact diagnosis for detection of neurologic pathology is required, otherwise patients for years can unsuccessfully be treated for mistakenly diagnosed diseases at other specialists.

The diseases falling within the scope of consideration of neurology are very widespread, arise at any age including at children. They can be caused by an injury, influence of an infection, disturbances of immune system, a severe stress, and also disturbances of pre-natal development. At children the children's neurology allocated in separate discipline is engaged in diseases of a nervous system. The children's neurology has huge value as the most part of neurologic diseases are for the first time shown at children's age, and only at its this age it is possible to adjust effectively. Except almost same circle of diseases, as the neurology of adults, children's neurology is engaged in congenital anomalies of development of a head and spinal cord, and also their injuries received as a result of a birth trauma.

Now on arms specialists of neurology have modern diagnostic methods, effective medicamentous remedies, the newest techniques of neurosurgical operations, and also the classical, checked by time remedies. Thanks to it the most part of neurologic diseases now successfully recovers, in other cases it is possible to try to obtain considerable simplification of a state, and sometimes long remission.

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Many drugs initially moved ahead in the market as drugs. Heroin, for example, was initially brought to the market as children's cough medicine. And cocaine was recommended by doctors as anesthesia and as the means increasing endurance.