Nicotine – the alkaloid synthesized in roots of plants of family of a nightshade family and accumulated in leaves. Nicotine soderzhitsyapreimushchestvenno in tobacco, a rustic tobacco, however is also present at small doses in eggplants, green pepper, potatoes and tomatoes, and also in leaves cooks. Nicotine belongs to strong neuro and to Cardiotoxinums. At constant hit of this substance strong, but curable dependence develops in an organism at the person. Effect of nicotine on an organism leads to development of a number of serious diseases.
At hit in an organism nicotine quickly spreads with a blood flow on all bodies. 7 seconds are enough that nicotine got into a brain. Nicotine can break a blood-brain barrier (physiological protection of the central nervous system against the microorganisms circulating in blood). The nicotine dose coming to an organism with each smoked cigarette is much less than amount of the nicotine which is contained in smoke. When smoking amount of the nicotine getting to an organism much lower, than at the use of snuff and chewing tobacco.
Nicotine, getting to an organism, influences nicotinic atsetilkholinovy receptors, increasing their activity that leads to the raised producing Epinephrinum, and also emission in blood of adrenaline and noradrenaline that in turn changes an emotional background of the person, generating feeling of excitement, cheerfulness, clarity of reason, inflow of forces, a psychological discharge, feeling of ease and happiness.
Influence of nicotine on cardiovascular system is shown in the form of tachycardia, increase in arterial pressure, vasoconstriction that leads to disturbance of blood supply of bodies. Influence of nicotine on internals is caused by a reflex effect. Effect of nicotine on receptors promotes also increase in production of dopamine, the neurotransmitter causing feeling of pleasure, satisfaction.
Nicotine under the influence of enzymes is oxidized to non-toxic niacin (RR vitamin), however the human body does not produce enzymes, necessary for oxidation. Therefore the lack of RR vitamin can be observed even at smokers.
One cigarette may contain to 1,27mg nicotine that at intravenous administration is a lethal dose for the person. Influence of nicotine changes work of all systems of bodies. Nicotine develops psychological and physical dependence.
Psychological dependence – the habit forming against the background of repeated repetition of any action. Psychological dependence on nicotine amplifies change of an emotional background that is one of major factors of influence of nicotine on an organism. The smoker gets used not only to receiving the nicotine dose stimulating nervous activity (that is physical dependence), but also to the ritual turning into an integral part of his life.
The negative impact of this substance on an organism is shown in disturbance of work of its main systems: TsNS, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. In addition to formation of psychological and physical dependence, nicotine promotes development of oncological diseases of respiratory system, an ischemic heart disease, chronic bronchitis. The smokers subject to constant effect of nicotine are more inclined to development of thromboses, ateroskleroz as nicotine promotes vasoconstriction.
Influence of nicotine on an organism is also shown in the slowed-down healing of ulcers, chronic hypersecretion of slime. Influence of nicotine promotes an impotence prematurity at men. The women subject to constant effect of nicotine experience difficulties with conception and successful incubation of pregnancy.
Exceeding of a dose of nicotine in an organism leads to poisoning. The main symptoms of acute poisoning with nicotine are:
Also allocate chronic poisoning with nicotine which symptoms are:
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