Bruise call the closed injury of fabrics without disturbance of their integrity. The bruise belongs to injuries easy and moderately severe and, as a rule, in such cases enough first-aid treatment though there can be also exceptions. So, severe bruises of the head (brain), internals, eyes, a backbone, thorax and abdominal cavity can constitute health hazard.
There is one complexity – directly after a bruise, especially strong, not always perhaps quickly and truly to define weight of an injury. The fact that in the beginning it seemed a bruise, maybe a change or a crack of a bone, both a rupture of internals, and concussion. That is why first aid at bruises has to be given correctly, and in any doubtful cases it is necessary to ask for medical assistance in emergency station or traumatologic department of the nearest hospital.
The first and main symptoms of a bruise are pain and a swelling in the injured place. Pain carries intensive, but short-term character, however in process of increase of hypostasis painful feelings renew and amplify that is explained by squeezing of nerve terminations. Pain from a bruise can be very long – it is about weeks, and sometimes and months, depending on an anatomic arrangement of the injured body part.
Emergence of a hematoma – the hypodermic hemorrhage formed as a result of a rupture of vessels is a frequent consequence of a bruise. The hematoma not always should be considered as harmless bruise – hematomas of a brain and internals can be extremely dangerous, situation is aggravated with the fact that their bystry diagnosis is not always possible.
Restriction or dysfunction of an affected body part belongs to late symptoms of a bruise. So, at a severe bruise of a joint often there is absolutely impossible a movement in it, at a bruise of eyes victims often note decrease in sight, etc.
First aid at a bruise is simple – it is necessary to put cold to the affected place and to immobilize it for some time. Cold will help to reduce hypostasis, and respectively and pain, it is necessary to put it as soon as possible. Classical means of first aid in this case is the bubble with ice (bubbles for ice are on sale in drugstores). If it is absent near at hand, it can be replaced with success any other cold subject, for example a water bottle from the refrigerator, a package of the frozen vegetables, the towel moistened with cold water, etc.
Imposing of a compressing bandage will be useful. Its purpose consists in prevention of hypostasis and reduction of a possible hematoma too.
In case of a megalgia it is admissible to accept anesthetic, however it is possible to do it only when there is an absolute confidence that the occurred injury – hurt also anything else. In all other cases it is necessary to refrain from reception of analgetics before medical examination, otherwise it is possible to distort symptoms – the injury will be represented easier, than is actually.
If confidence that there was a bruise no, it is necessary to ask for medical assistance in emergency station or a hospital as with a high probability carrying out a X-ray analysis will be required.
Depending on where the injured place is located, first aid can vary a little.
At an eyeglobe bruise before applying of cold it is necessary to impose approximately sterile (or at least just pure) a bandage and to immediately transport the victim in hospital. The hurt eye quickly swells and is closed and to carry out its diagnosis, having defined precisely character and severity of an injury, only the specialist can. If the severe injury then what will give specialized help earlier, that a high probability to keep all functions of an eye.
First aid at a bruise of the head has to include express diagnosis on existence of possible concussion.
The occurred loss of consciousness after a bruise, even short-term, is a reliable symptom of concussion, however if the loss of consciousness did not occur, it does not mean yet that everything was. Can point the following symptoms to concussion:
There is a simple test by which it is possible to define quickly and effectively existence of a concussion of the brain: suggest the victim to track a look your finger which you move before his face. If there is no concussion, eyes will smoothly move if is – there will be disturbances of the movement (twitchings, interruption, etc.).
Concussion demands medical intervention. In this case before arrival of the doctor or delivery of the victim to hospital (emergency station) it it is not necessary to leave one as the state can worsen at any time.
At severe bruises of a backbone, thorax and abdominal cavity it is necessary to ask for medical assistance if after the occurred injury any deviation in the state of health appears: disturbance of motive or sensitive function, faintness, weakness, a cold perspiration, a syncope, the complicated breath, an asthma, etc.
There are very curious medical syndromes, for example, persuasive swallowing objects. In a stomach of one patient suffering from this mania 2500 foreign objects were revealed.
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