The statistics of drownings is disturbing – by different estimates, every year in Russia sinks from 3 000 to 10 000 people, this population of a small town. The most frequent reason of mortality on water specialists call alcoholic intoxication, about 40% of all cases of drowning fall to its share. The reason, the second for frequency, – self-confidence how strange it sounded. People revaluate the opportunities and underestimate the risks connected with bathing in reservoirs and it leads sometimes to tragic effects.
Society of rescue on waters in order to avoid drowning urges to follow the following rules of conduct:
Observance of these simple rules could prevent the lion share of the tragedies connected with death of the person on water. Unfortunately, the understanding of importance of it sometimes comes too late.
What to do if accident happened? It is necessary to start first-aid treatment because in this case human life directly depends on that how bystry and true were actions of the rescuer immediately.
Task of the rescuer not only to save drowning, but also to keep the life and as it is necessary to do everything quickly and there is no time for reflections, it is necessary to know accurately following:
When the victim is pulled out on the coast, it is necessary to estimate quickly what type of drowning it was necessary to face as the algorithm of first aid will depend on it.
Distinguish two main types of drowning:
After the victim is pulled out on the coast, upper respiratory tracts should be exempted quickly from foreign objects (ooze, dentures, emetic masses).
As when drowning wet, or blue type, in respiratory tracts of the victim there is a lot of liquid, the rescuer has to lay it on the knee a stomach, facedown, to allow to flow down to water, to thrust to the victim two fingers into a mouth and to press on a language root. It becomes not only to cause vomiting which will help to exempt airways and a stomach from the water which was not in time to be soaked up, but also to help to start respiratory process.
If everything turned out, and the rescuer achieved emergence of emetic masses (their distinguishing character presence of undigested pieces of food is), it means that first aid appeared in time in time, is carried out correctly, and the person will live. Nevertheless, it is necessary to continue to help it to delete water from airways and a stomach, without stopping pressing on a root of language and causing again and again emetic reflex – until in the course of vomiting water does not cease to be emitted. At this stage cough develops.
If several attempts in a row to cause vomiting were unsuccessful if confused breath or cough did not appear at least, it means that there is no free liquid in airways and a stomach, it was soaked up. In this case it is necessary to turn immediately the victim on a back and to start resuscitation.
First-aid treatment when drowning dry type differs in the fact that in this case it is necessary to start resuscitation at once after release of upper respiratory tracts, passing a stage of calling of vomiting. In this case there are 5-6 minutes to try to start respiratory process at the victim.
So, in summary form an algorithm of first-aid treatment when drowning following:
When drowning pale, or dry type the second stage is passed.
After it was succeeded to start independent breath, the victim is stacked on one side, covered with a towel or a plaid to warm. It is necessary to call the ambulance surely. Before arrival of the doctor the victim has to reside under control, in case of an apnoea resuscitation actions should be resumed.
The rescuer shall insist on medical assistance to the victim even if that is capable to move independently and refuses it. The matter is that terrible effects of drowning, such as hypostasis of a brain or lungs, a sudden apnoea, etc., can come also in several hours, and even in several days after accident. Danger is considered passing only when 5 days later after incident no serious problems with health arose.
Many drugs initially moved ahead in the market as drugs. Heroin, for example, was initially brought to the market as children's cough medicine. And cocaine was recommended by doctors as anesthesia and as the means increasing endurance.
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