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First aid when drowning

Первая помощь при утопленииThe statistics of drownings is disturbing – by different estimates, every year in Russia sinks  from 3 000 to 10 000 people, this population of a small town. The most frequent reason of mortality on water specialists call alcoholic intoxication, about 40% of all cases of drowning fall to its share. The reason, the second for frequency, – self-confidence how strange it sounded. People revaluate the opportunities and underestimate the risks connected with bathing in reservoirs and it leads sometimes to tragic effects.

Society of rescue on waters in order to avoid drowning urges to follow the following rules of conduct:

  1. Not to come into water in a state of intoxication;
  2. Not to dive in the unfamiliar place;
  3. Not to approach vessels by swimming, not to be on a vessel course even if this vessel represents the small boat, the motor boat or the water bicycle;
  4. Not to swim away far on air mattresses, circles, toys, etc.;
  5. Not to organize the dangerous games in water connected with comic drowning, captures, a fright, tightening under water;
  6. Children have to be near water and the more so in water only accompanied by adults and under their vigilant control.

Observance of these simple rules could prevent the lion share of the tragedies connected with death of the person on water. Unfortunately, the understanding of importance of it sometimes comes too late.

What to do if accident happened? It is necessary to start first-aid treatment because in this case human life directly depends on that how bystry and true were actions of the rescuer immediately.

As it is correct to pull out the victim on the coast

Task of the rescuer not only to save drowning, but also to keep the life and as it is necessary to do everything quickly and there is no time for reflections, it is necessary to know accurately following:

  1. It is necessary to approach the victim behind, to take so that he could not seize the rescuer (it occurs reflex, sinking the actions it is not capable to control). At rescuers taking of the victim behind for hair is considered classical if their length allows. As if roughly it sounded, nevertheless, such option is effective as it allows to move, hold rather conveniently and quickly the victim's head over water and to secure itself against the fact that having seized a death grip it will drag away the rescuer on depth;
  2. If nevertheless drowning seized the rescuer and pulls it down, it is necessary not to beat off, and to dive – in this case drowning will instinctively unclench hands.

Способы, позволяющие вытащить тонущего человека на берег

Types of drownings

When the victim is pulled out on the coast, it is necessary to estimate quickly what type of drowning it was necessary to face as the algorithm of first aid will depend on it.

Distinguish two main types of drowning:

  1. Blue, or wet (sometimes it is called still true drowning) – when inside, a large amount of water came to a stomach and airways. Skin of the victim becomes blue because that water, having quickly got to a blood stream, dilutes with itself blood which in this state easily filters through walls of vessels, giving to skin a cyanotic shade. One more sign of wet, or blue drowning – from a mouth and a nose of the victim is allocated a large amount of pink foam, and breath gains the bubbling character;
  2. Pale, or dry (called by also asphyxial drowning) – when in the course of drowning the victim has a laryngospasm, and water does not get into respiratory tracts. In this case all pathological processes are connected with shock and the coming suffocation. Pale drowning has more favorable forecast.

Algorithm of first-aid treatment

After the victim is pulled out on the coast, upper respiratory tracts should be exempted quickly from foreign objects (ooze, dentures, emetic masses).

As when drowning wet, or blue type, in respiratory tracts of the victim there is a lot of liquid, the rescuer has to lay it on the knee a stomach, facedown, to allow to flow down to water, to thrust to the victim two fingers into a mouth and to press on a language root. It becomes not only to cause vomiting which will help to exempt airways and a stomach from the water which was not in time to be soaked up, but also to help to start respiratory process.

If everything turned out, and the rescuer achieved emergence of emetic masses (their distinguishing character presence of undigested pieces of food is), it means that first aid appeared in time in time, is carried out correctly, and the person will live. Nevertheless, it is necessary to continue to help it to delete water from airways and a stomach, without stopping pressing on a root of language and causing again and again emetic reflex – until in the course of vomiting water does not cease to be emitted. At this stage cough develops.

If several attempts in a row to cause vomiting were unsuccessful if confused breath or cough did not appear at least, it means that there is no free liquid in airways and a stomach, it was soaked up. In this case it is necessary to turn immediately the victim on a back and to start resuscitation.

First-aid treatment when drowning dry type differs in the fact that in this case it is necessary to start resuscitation at once after release of upper respiratory tracts, passing a stage of calling of vomiting. In this case there are 5-6 minutes to try to start respiratory process at the victim.

So, in summary form an algorithm of first-aid treatment when drowning following:

  1. To exempt upper respiratory tracts (a mouth and a nose) from foreign substances;
  2. To throw the victim through a knee, to allow to flow down to water, to cause vomiting and as much as possible fully to remove water from a stomach and airways;
  3. If there was an apnoea, to start resuscitation (an artificial cardiac massage and breath of companies - in - a mouth or a mouth - in - a nose).

When drowning pale, or dry type the second stage is passed.

Actions after first-aid treatment

After it was succeeded to start independent breath, the victim is stacked on one side, covered with a towel or a plaid to warm. It is necessary to call the ambulance surely. Before arrival of the doctor the victim has to reside under control, in case of an apnoea resuscitation actions should be resumed.

The rescuer shall insist on medical assistance to the victim even if that is capable to move independently and refuses it. The matter is that terrible effects of drowning, such as hypostasis of a brain or lungs, a sudden apnoea, etc., can come also in several hours, and even in several days after accident. Danger is considered passing only when 5 days later after incident no serious problems with health arose.

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