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What is an edentia? Types of an edentia

The edentia belongs to diseases of an oral cavity and means partial or total absence of teeth.

The edentia Вторичная адентияdepending on the reasons can be primary or secondary.

Primary edentia has inborn character. Its reason is a lack of rudiments of teeth that is most often display of an angidrotichesky ectodermal dysplasia. Also symptoms of this disease are changes of skin (lack of hair, early aging of skin) and mucous membranes (pallor, dryness).

In some cases it is not possible to establish the reason of primary edentia. It is supposed that the rassasyvaniye of a rudiment of tooth can occur under the influence of a number of toxic influences or be a consequence of inflammatory process. Perhaps, the hereditary reasons and a number of endocrine pathologies play a role.

The secondary edentia meets more often. There is this edentia owing to partial or full loss of teeth or rudiments of teeth. The reasons there can be a set: most often it is injuries or a consequence of the started caries.

By the number of the absent teeth the edentia can be full or partial. The full edentia is a total absence of teeth. More often it is primary.

Clinic of an edentia

Depending on that, this edentia full or partial is, also the clinic is shown.

The full edentia leads to serious deformation of a facial skeleton. As a result there are disturbances of the speech: muffled pronunciation of sounds. The person cannot fully chew and bite off food. In turn there is a disturbance of food that leads to a number of diseases of digestive tract. Also full edentia leads to dysfunction of a temporal and mandibular joint. Against the background of a full edentia the mental status of the person is violated. The edentia at children leads to disturbance of their social adaptation and promotes development of mental disorders.

Primary full edentia at children is very rare and serious illness at which there are no rudiments of teeth. Disturbances of pre-natal development are the reason of this type of an edentia.

The clinic in the absence of timely treatment extremely heavy is also connected with the expressed changes in a facial skeleton.

Secondary full edentia is called loss of all teeth at their initial existence. More often the secondary full edentia arises owing to dental diseases: caries, a periodontal disease, and also after a surgical exodontia (at oncology, for example) or as an effect of injuries.

The secondary partial edentia has the same reasons, as primary. At a complication the stertost of solid tissues of teeth given to an edentia the hyperesthesia develops. At the beginning of process the soreness of the mouth at influence of chemical irritants appears. At the expressed process – pain at a smykaniye of teeth, influence of thermal, chemical irritants, mechanical influences.


Diagnosis comes easy. There is enough clinic. Confirmation of some types of an edentia requires carrying out radiological inspection.

Treatment of an edentia

Primary full Частичная первичная адентияedentia at children is treated by prosthetics which needs to be carried out, since 3-4 years of life. These children need dynamic observation of the specialist since the child has a great risk of a growth disorder of a jaw, as a result of prosthesis pressure.

At a secondary full edentia at adults prosthetics is performed using removable lamellar prostheses.

When using a method of fixed prosthetics at a full edentia it is necessary to carry out preliminary implantation of teeth.

Prosthetics complications:

- disturbance of normal fixing of a prosthesis because of an atrophy of jaws;

- allergic reactions to dentoprosthetic materials;

- development of inflammatory process;

- development of decubituses, etc.

Treatment of the secondary partial edentia complicated by a hyperesthesia includes a depulpation of teeth.

At treatment of secondary adentiya elimination of a causative factor, i.e. the disease or pathological process which led to an edentia is obligatory.

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