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Proctal crack

Proctal crack – disturbance of integrity of a mucous membrane of an anus which cause both external mechanical damages, and natural physiological processes can be.

Proctal crack: types of cracks, reasons of development and risk factors

Анальная трещина – нарушение целостности слизистой оболочки анального отверстияThe proctal crack is a defect of a mucous membrane of the proctal channel. A crack in the proctal channel – one of the most frequent reasons of a visit to the proctologist. Cracks can have various localization. Damages arise regardless of age and a sex of the person. Though statistically, to most of all emergence of cracks of the proctal channel women of young age are subject.

On character of a course of a disease distinguish acute proctal cracks and chronic cracks. An acute proctal crack – spontaneously arisen disturbance of integrity of a mucous membrane, as a rule, healing independently within 1 – 2 days without use of medicamentous drugs. The acute crack has smooth, smooth edges, the slit-like form, its bottom is muscular tissue of a sphincter of an anus (the main muscle of proctal pass keeping fecal masses). Its length seldom exceeds 2 cm. At disturbance of the course of healing of a crack, defect passes into a severe form and the chronic proctal crack develops.

Chronic cracks form from open (not healing) acute cracks which as a result of the repeating mechanical damage increase in sizes and are infected with microbes from fecal masses. The bottom and edges of a chronic crack become covered by granules with a fibrous plaque. At a long current at the edges of a crack connecting fabric expands, edges are condensed, being exposed to trophic changes. In the field of a chronic proctal crack sites of excess fabric which can develop further into fibrous polyps are formed.

Acute proctal cracks will respond to conservative treatment while the chronic anal fissure demands surgical correction.

Distinguish from the numerous reasons of emergence of proctal cracks:

  • Injury of a mucous membrane of proctal pass by fecal masses;
  • Injuries of fabrics at introduction to the proctal channel of foreign bodys (proctal sex, an enema);
  • Disturbance of blood supply of rectal area;
  • Rectum diseases (hemorrhoids);
  • Disturbance of an innervation of a rectum;
  • Sphincter spasm;
  • Disturbance of a chair (chronic diarrhea, lock);
  • Anatomic features of a structure of an anus.

Risk factors of development of proctal cracks are:

  • Diseases (colitis, coloenterites, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcers of a stomach and duodenum, gastritises, cholecystitises);
  • The improper feeding causing locks and gastric disturbances;
  • Non-compliance with personal hygiene;
  • Slow-moving way of life.

Proctal crack: symptoms of defect of the proctal channel

The proctal crack is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Anus spasm (sphincter spasm);
  • Sharp pain at defecation;
  • The aching rest pain;
  • Blood impurity in fecal masses;
  • Insignificant bloody allocations between acts of defecation;
  • The complicated defecation;
  • Purulent discharges from an anus with an unpleasant smell (at chronic proctal cracks).

At a proctal crack symptoms often copy symptoms of hemorrhoids, rectum cancer. Very important at detection of one of symptoms timely to see a doctor for an exception of the serious diseases threatening health and human life.

The proctal crack often can not have explicit symptoms. Upon transition of an acute crack to a chronic form, the patient pains at long sitting, carrying a certain type of underwear can begin to disturb.

At chronic forms of proctal cracks which symptoms can be as specific characters (release of blood at defecation), and signs of the general character (painful feelings, the complicated defecation), the risk of development of inflammatory processes at inadequate treatment increases.

Proctal crack: operation and conservative methods of treatment

Acute proctal cracks well give in to conservative methods of treatment while at a chronic proctal crack operation is the only effective method of treatment.

Анальная трещина зачастую может не иметь явных симптомовBefore an initiation of treatment of a crack of an anus it is necessary to diagnose and remove correctly damage origins as the proctal crack is only a consequence of influence of the factors injuring anus tissues.

Conservative methods of treatment of a proctal crack assume normalization of a chair and acts of defecation. For this purpose recommend a special diet, a softening of fecal masses oil microclysters, light laxative drugs which the attending physician has to prescribe.

Thermal procedures have good therapeutic effect: hot-water bottles on a crotch, sedentary hot bathtubs. Heat promotes relaxation of muscular tissue that will help to remove a sphincter spasm. Also use of the candles promoting decrease in a pain syndrome, bystry healing of fabrics is recommended.

At a chronic proctal crack operation is the most bystry, effective and painless method of elimination of a problem. The chronic crack in itself brings essential physical and psychological discomfort. Conservative treatment can aggravate a problem only. If within 2 weeks improvement is not observed, then surgical excision of a crack is carried out. For prevention of proctal cracks operation also assumes carrying out a partial sphincterotomy (a partial section of a proctal sphincter). The rehabilitation period after operation lasts about a week when the bed rest, a special diet and medicamentous therapy is shown to patients.

If proctal cracks recur at the patient, an operative measure without sphincterotomy will only eliminate the next crack, without having solved a problem of emergence of new cracks further.

The forecast after surgical excision of proctal cracks is favorable. At appropriate timely treatment, proctal cracks begin to live quickly.

Treatment of a proctal crack folk remedies

Distinguish the tampons moistened with grass infusions from the main national methods of treatment of a rectal crack. So, introduction of the tampons impregnated with infusions of officinal herbs (a camomile, a calendula, oak bark) is one of the most effective methods of treatment of a rectal crack by national methods. Also for impregnation of tampons honey, castor oil, juice and pulp of an aloe are used. From herbs to treatment of a proctal crack folk remedies apply a St. John's Wort, a celandine, a yarrow, a plantain, a ninety-knot grass.

Treatment of a rectal crack folk remedies has to be combined with a diet, procedures for a softening of fecal masses (an enema, laxative drugs).

Folk remedies are the most effective at isolated cases of acute cracks, however at development of cracks into chronic forms it is recommended to see a doctor urgently.

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