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Arachnoidal cyst

Арахноидальная киста головного мозга на снимке МРТBrain cyst – the hollow pathological education filled with the liquid close on structure to liquor, having various localization in a brain. Distinguish two main types of cysts of a brain: arachnoidal, retrotserebellyarny cysts.

Arachnoidal cyst of a brain – the high-quality hollow education filled with liquid, forming on the surface of a brain in the field of its arachnoid (arachnoidal) membranes.

Arachnoidal meninx – one of three meninx located between a superficial firm cover of a brain and a deep soft meninx.

Walls of an arachnoidal cyst form or cells of an arachnoid membrane of a brain (primary cyst), or cicatricial collagen (a secondary cyst). The arachnoidal cyst can be two types:

  • Primary or inborn arachnoidal cyst is a consequence of anomalies of development of covers of a brain in a fruit as a result of influence of physical and chemical factors (medicines, radiation exposure, toxic agents);
  • The secondary or acquired arachnoidal cyst is a consequence of various diseases (meningitis, a corpus collosum agenesia) or a complication after injuries, an operative measure (bruises, concussions, mechanical damages of external covers of a brain).

In most cases development of an arachnoidal cyst proceeds asymptomatically. The pronounced neurologic symptomatology is present only in 20% of cases.

Distinguish from the factors influencing emergence and growth of an arachnoidal cyst:

  • Inflammatory process of a meninx (virus, infectious defeat, arachnoiditis);
  • Growth of pressure of liquid in cystous education;
  • Concussion or any other injury of a brain at the patient with earlier formed arachnoidal cyst.

Symptoms of an arachnoidal retrotserebellyarny cyst

In most cases brain cysts (arachnoidal, retrotserebellyarny cysts) proceed asymptomatically. These new growths come to light at the next inspection of the patient or at diagnosis of neurologic diseases of similar symptomatology. Symptoms of an arachnoidal cyst nonspecific. Expressiveness of symptomatology of an arachnoidal, retrotserebellyarny cyst depends on localization and the amount of education. At most of patients the all-brain symptomatology connected with squeezing of certain sites of a brain is observed. The focal symptomatology caused by formation of a hygroma, a rupture of an arachnoidal cyst is extremely seldom observed.

Main symptoms of an arachnoidal, retrotserebellyarny cyst:

  • The dizzinesses which are not caused by other factors (overfatigue, anemia, reception of medicines, pregnancy at women);
  • The nausea, vomiting which are not caused by other factors (administration of drugs, poisoning, other diseases);
  • Hallucinations, mental disorders;
  • Spasms;
  • Loss of consciousness;
  • Feelings of numbness in extremities, a hemiparesis;
  • Headaches, incoordination;
  • Feeling of a pulsation, raspiraniye in the head;
  • Hearing disorder, sight;
  • Accurate recognition of a sonitus at hearing preservation;
  • Feeling of weight in the head;
  • Strengthening of painful feelings at the movement by the head.

It should be noted that at secondary type of an arachnoidal cyst the clinical picture can be added with symptoms of a basic disease or the injury which is the prime cause of formation of a cystous cavity.

Diagnosis of an arachnoidal likvorny cyst

Apply various methods to diagnosis of an arachnoidal likvorny cyst (the cyst filled with liquor). The main among them are the magnetic and resonant tomography and a computer tomography for identification of cystous education, definition of its localization, the sizes. Intravenous administration of contrast allows to differentiate an arachnoidal likvorny cyst from a tumor (the tumor accumulates contrast, the cyst is not present).

It is necessary to remember that the arachnoidal cyst is a consequence of other neurologic disease or disturbance of functioning of any systems of bodies more often. Apply the following diagnostic methods to identification of the prime causes of an arachnoidal cyst:

  • Blood tests for detection of viruses, infections, autoimmune diseases;
  • Blood tests on coagulability and level of content of cholesterol;
  • The Doppler research allows to find disturbance of passability of vessels owing to what the lack of brain blood supply develops;
  • The monitoring of arterial pressure fixing fluctuations of pressure per day;
  • Heart researches.

Exact identification of the reasons of development of an arachnoidal cyst allows to choose optimum ways of treatment of cystous education and to minimize risk of a recurrence.МРТ - метод диагностики арахноидальной кисты

Treatment of an arachnoidal cyst

On dynamics of development of arachnoidal cysts distinguish the stood cystous educations and the progressing cysts. As a rule, the stood educations do not cause to the patient of painful feelings, do not represent risk for normal brain activity. In that case treatment of an arachnoidal cyst is not required. At the stood forms of cysts diagnosis and treatment are directed to identification of the prime causes of formation of a cyst, and also elimination and the prevention of the factors promoting formation of new cysts.

At the progressing type of cystous educations treatment of an arachnoidal cyst assumes the package of measures directed to identification and elimination of origins of a cyst, and also direct removal of the cyst.

Drug treatment of an arachnoidal cyst is directed to elimination of inflammatory processes, normalization of brain blood supply, recovery of the damaged brain cells.

At inefficiency or small efficiency of conservative methods of treatment of an arachnoidal cyst apply radical methods. Indications to performing surgery are:

  • Risk of a rupture of an arachnoidal cyst;
  • Disturbances of a mental condition of the patient with the becoming frequent convulsive and epileptic seizures;
  • Increase in intracranial pressure;
  • Strengthening of focal symptomatology.

The main methods of operational treatment of an arachnoidal cyst are:

  • Drainage – removal of liquid from a cavity by needle aspiration;
  • Shunting – creation of a drainage for liquid outflow;
  • Windowing – excision of a cyst.

Arachnoidal cyst: effects, forecasts, complications

At timely diagnosis and treatment of an arachnoidal cyst forecasts very favorable. The main risks connected with development of an arachnoidal cyst are strengthening of the squeezing impact of a body of a cyst on think-tanks owing to what there are disturbances of functions of an organism, and also a rupture of a cyst. After removal of an arachnoidal cyst effects can become a hearing disorder and sight, speech function. At untimely diagnosis of an arachnoidal cyst of an effect can be extremely dangerous (hydrocephaly, brain hernias, death).

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