Atrophy of an optic nerve – a serious ophthalmologic disease with considerable decrease in visual function of the patient. The inflammation or dystrophy of an optic nerve, its prelum or an injury which led to damages of tissues of nerve can provoke an atrophy of an optic nerve.
Carry brain tumors, meningitis, a hypertension, profuse bleedings, atherosclerosis and other diseases to the reasons of an atrophy of an optic nerve of a neurologic, infectious, flebologichesky etiology. Genetic factors or intoxication of an organism can also cause destruction of nerve fibrils of an optic nerve.
In development of an atrophy of an optic nerve gradually there is a destruction of nerve fibrils, their substitution by connecting and gliozny fabric, and then obstruction of the vessels which are responsible for blood supply of an optic nerve. As a result at the patient visual acuity decreases and there is blanching of an optic disk.
Symptoms of an atrophy of an optic nerve depend on a disease form. A sign of primary atrophy of an optic nerve as independent disease, a clear boundary of a disk of pale color is. At the same time normal excavation (deepening) of a disk is broken. At primary atrophy of an optic nerve it gets a saucer form with the narrowed arterial vessels of a retina.
Carry an illegibility of borders of a disk, vasodilatation, a pro-mining (protrusion) of its central part to symptoms of an atrophy of an optic nerve of a secondary form. However it is necessary to consider that at a late stage of a secondary atrophy of an optic nerve symptoms are absent: vessels are narrowed, borders of a disk smooth out, the disk is flattened.
The hereditary atrophy of an optic nerve, for example, at Leber's disease, is shown by retrobulbar neuritis. So the inflammation of the site of the optic nerve located behind an eyeglobe is called. Visual acuity at the same time decreases gradually, but morbidity of feelings is noted during movements by eyes.
Symptom of an atrophy of an optic nerve against the background of profuse bleeding (uterine or gastrointestinal) is sharp vasoconstriction of a retina and loss from a field of vision of its lower half.
Symptoms of an atrophy of an optic nerve at a prelum a tumor or from an injury depend on localization of damages of a visual disk. Quite often even at the most serious injuries quality of sight decreases gradually.
The partial atrophy of an optic nerve is characterized by the smallest functional and organic changes. The term "partial atrophy of an optic nerve" designates that destructive process began, mentioned only a part of an optic nerve and stopped. Symptoms of a partial atrophy of an optic nerve can be the most various and have different expressiveness. For example, narrowing of a field of vision up to a tunnel syndrome, existence of scotomas (blind spots), decrease in visual acuity.
At considerable blanching of an optic nerve diagnosis of a disease simple. Otherwise more detailed studying of visual functions of the patient by tests for definition of a field of vision, X-ray and fluorescent and angiographic inspections is required.
Points to an atrophy of an optic nerve also change of electric physiological sensitivity of an optic nerve and increase in intraocular pressure at a disease of a glaukomatozny form.
The optimum forecast in treatment of a partial atrophy of an optic nerve. The main standard in therapy of a disease – use of drugs for improvement of blood supply of an optic nerve, vitamins and physical therapy.
If decrease in visual acuity is caused by squeezing, treatment of an atrophy of an optic nerve first of all neurosurgical, and already then methods of magnetic and laser stimulation, electro-and physical therapy are applied.
The main goal of treatment of an atrophy of an optic nerve – to stop destruction of tissues of optic nerve and to keep the available visual acuity. Completely it is impossible to recover visual function, as a rule. But without treatment the atrophy of an optic nerve can lead to a total blindness of the patient.
Many inborn diseases of eyes are diagnosed at a ryobyonka at the first survey in maternity hospital: glaucoma, cataract, ptosis of an upper eyelid, etc. An atrophy of an optic nerve at children, unfortunately, not from their number, as its current often hidden, without external visible symptoms of a disease. Therefore the diagnosis of checkmate of an optic nerve or a partial atrophy of an optic nerve at children is established, as a rule, on the second month of life of the child during planned survey at the ophthalmologist.
The doctor checks visual acuity of the newborn, on quality of fixing of a look and ability to watch the child the moving toy. The field of vision of the baby is in the same way defined. If in such a way it is not possible to find out visual acuity, then the research of reaction of a brain to visual irritants is applied.
By means of the ophthalmologic equipment and drugs expanding a pupil the eyeground of the kid is studied. At detection of the dimmed visual disk the diagnosis "an atrophy of an optic nerve" is made. At children treatment of a disease takes place according to the same scheme, as at adults, with purpose of vasodilating therapy, nootrop for improvement of exchange processes in a brain and the courses of light, laser, electric and magnetic influence stimulating sight.
Blood of the person "runs" on vessels under huge pressure and at disturbance of their integrity is capable to shoot of distance to 10 meters.
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