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Autism. General characteristic.

Аутизм - нарушение психического развитияAutism represents disturbance of mental development of which such signs are characteristic as: disorder of motility and the speech, stereotype of behavior and activity – all this results in deficit of social interaction. This neurobiological disorder, the caused disturbance of mezhpolusharny bonds, accompanies the person throughout all his life, however signs of autism are shown at children's age.

Today autism at children is not a rarity – their one child 150 suffers from these mental disturbances. Statistically, autistic frustration are observed in all social, ethnic and racial groups, however more boys, than girls are subject to this disease. Most often this frustration is diagnosed for children up to 3 years. In certain cases it is possible to distinguish autism which reasons still are up to the end not studied and at six-month-old children.

Today scientists cannot speak with absolute confidence about autism reasons as the nature of this disease rather difficult and not clear. It is established that autistic frustration are connected with genes, however that – interaction of a large number of genes or influence of rare mutations – becomes a push for development of autism, it is unknown.

As this pathology in many cases is followed by damage of temporal shares, a cerebellum, a brain trunk, it is possible to say that the reasons of autism are not limited only to genetic predisposition. Also chromosomal anomalies, inborn exchange disturbances, organic lesions of the central nervous system can give an impetus to development of a disease.

Autism symptoms

It is most expressed signs of autism are shown at children's age, however the softened their form is observed also at adults.

Diagnosing of autism at children requires existence of a so-called triad:

  • insufficient social interactions;
  • disturbances in mutual communication;
  • limited interests, the repeating behavior, existence of ritual actions.

Components of this triad separately can be met also at healthy people, however only their cumulative manifestation allows to speak about autistic frustration.

Common symptom of autism is selectivity in food, however for diagnosis of a disease it is insignificant.

Autism at children can be determined by the following signs:

  • Badly developed speech. The child, as a rule, understands the unambiguous simple words calling him for action – "eat", "sit down", close a door". Reproduction of the speech represents repetition of the words or their parts heard on TV or from people around. The lack of abstract thinking leads to the fact that there is no understanding of sense of such pronouns as "my", "your", "its", etc. Problems with the speech as one of autism signs, become the most explicit at children of the second year of life.
  • The behavior characteristic of people with physiological disturbances. The child behaves in such a way that an impression is made that he the deaf or the blind person – does not react to the speech turned to it, does not contact a look to parents.
  • Absence at parents and the child of the close relations of emotional character. This sign of autism is shown usually at infantile age when the kid does not try to nestle on mother, resists physical contact.
  • Lack of interest in toys. The child has no ability to play with toys if he also shows to them interest, then it has very unusual character: twists wheels of the turned machine, sucks a doll, twists a piece of a rope.
  • Inability to communicate and play with peers. There is an opinion that children with autism prefer loneliness to games with other children, however it is not always the truth. In most cases lack of communication with peers is caused by inability, but not unwillingness of the child to contact and play.
  • Attacks of rage and aggression. Autism at children very often is followed by fits of anger which can be directed both to themselves, and on people around. Even the child can aggressively react to the slightest prohibition or an obstacle: to fight, be scratched, bite.
  • The repeating stereotypic actions. A peculiar ritual behavior of the child is one of autism symptoms: it is shaken all over here and there, rotates objects, claps, stares at light or the rotating objects, turns on one place, squats or jumps up on one place throughout a long time.

Отсутствие интереса к игрушкам - один из симптомов аутизмаAutism symptoms which can be noticed in the first year of life of the child:

  • unusual gesticulation;
  • late babble;
  • weak reaction to communication;
  • not coordination in exchange of sounds with adults.

In many cases autism is followed by a number of physiological problems which are shown in a look:

  • impossibility of clarification of an organism from heavy metals;
  • syndrome of the increased intestinal permeability;
  • incomplete digestion of a glyutein and casein;
  • neurologic changes;
  • deficit of chrome, selenium, zinc, magnesium, vitamins A, C, E, B6, B12, folic and nicotinic acids.

Treatment of autism

Most often for treatment of autism resort to the behavioural therapy based on remuneration of the correct behavior. In case of use of this therapy at an early stage of a disease it is possible to teach children to service itself and to communicate with other people. Treatment of autism can include physical and speech therapy, depending on specific features of the child. Such signs of autism as obsessivno-compulsive frustration or a depression, as a rule, assume use of medicines.

Family therapy in treatment of autism has huge value as parents and relatives can give to the child huge help in process of its adaptation to the outside world. The parents who are looking after the child with autism should plan carefully breaks during the day, it will allow to save the physical and moral forces necessary for care of such kid. When the child grows up, it is recommended to ask for the help people around as alone to cope with this problem rather difficult. Communication and mutual aid between families in which the same special children grow up is also very important.

Effective treatment of autism is based on the qualified help of doctors and most adapted behavior of parents to needs of the child.

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