The bacteriologist – the specialist studying origins of infectious diseases, their antigenic, genetic and morphological properties. The bacteriologist investigates environment objects, materials of healthy and sick persons.
In a human body there lives the set of microorganisms, and both useful, and pathogenic. 99% of all bacteria are useful microorganisms – unselfish assistants to the person. They represent constant intestinal microflora. Generally it is bacteroids and bifidobacteria (90-98%). However there are also accompanying microorganisms – enterococci, colibacillus, lactobacilli (1-9% of total quantity of microorganisms). In certain conditions all bacteria, except bifidobacteria, are capable to cause various diseases.
Non-constant intestinal microflora is presented by opportunistic microorganisms – stafilokokka and various mushrooms. Their quantity and structure constantly change. For recognition of the causative agent of this or that infection the bacteriologist appoints certain laboratory analyses. The bacteriologist decides what to choose a way of laboratory researches in each case. Accuracy and correctness of the further diagnosis directly depends on correctness of the chosen tactics of researches.
Bacteriological crops are considered as the most widespread method of detection of a cause of illness. At the patient take so-called biomaterial – blood, urine, kcal, sperm and a secret of a prostate (from men), a secret of the cervical channel and a smear from a vagina (from women), saliva, allocations from a pharynx and a nose, liquor, a wound discharge.
Bacteriological crops are divided into the following types:
Biomaterial is located in special broth – a medium. In such crops there is a rough reproduction of microorganisms that considerably facilitates identification of a contagium.
By bacteriological methods the bacteriologist quite often investigates also so-called useful microbes of a digestive tract which take part in digestion process.
The bacteriologist is obliged to know questions of private and general microbiology and epidemiology, mechanisms of immune responses, the doctrine of an infection. He has to understand well serological methods of a research, modern methods of microbiological diagnosis, the contents and sections of bacteriology, the main questions of clinic and a pathogeny of bacterial infections, and also the principles of planning of activity and the reporting of laboratory bacteriological services.
The bacteriologist also has to not only conduct bacteriological researches in connection with the professional duties assigned to him and and participate in studying and further implementation of modern methods of bacteriological laboratory researches and the equipment. Besides, the bacteriologist has to make recommendations for personnel of medical institutions.
The bacteriologist determines the volume and character of biomaterial for a research, and also terms of capture of material and terms of sampling. He organizes capture of biological material and its delivery in laboratory. The bacteriologist defines conditions of transportation and a way of storage of biomaterial for a research. Further the doctor conducts microscopic examination of the received material, and then defines expediency of use of this or that way or method of crops. After crops he studies quality and quantitative indices of the grown cultures. Marking out true cultures of bacteria, he chooses necessary tests for definition of their taxonomical situation.
The bacteriologist in the diagnostic purposes has to be able to identify easily patrimonial accessory of various microorganisms – shigellas, salmonellas, клебсиелл, protiums, hafnium, neysseriya, bacilli, pseudo-monads, korinebakteriya, micrococci, streptococci, stafilokokk, clostridiums, serration, Bordetellas, лептоспир, causative agents of vibriogenny diarrheas and especially dangerous infections.
According to the data obtained during the research the bacteriologist makes an antibiotikogramma, and further, on blood serum of the patient carries out reactions for identification of an antiserum capacity.
Having completed a material research, it performs its disinfecting then gives the reasonable answer and makes out registration and reporting medical documentation.
The bacteriologist has to be able to reproduce infectious processes on animals, to own various ways of immunization of experimental animals for the purpose of receiving specific antibodies and neutralization of toxins antitoxins.
Control over observance of the anti-epidemic mode and safety measures by younger and paramedical staff, and also carrying out sanitary and educational works among the population also belongs to the bacteriologist's duties.
So the doctor exercises control of provisions, makes sampling. By results of a research the bacteriologist makes the conclusion about a sanitary condition of the sold food stuffs and the room in which sale is carried out. The bacteriologist checks a sanitary condition of the people connected with products. He carries out washouts from stock, from hands, the equipment and a container. After carrying out a research the bacteriologist takes measures for possible discharge of workers of the trade sphere.
The doctor carries out control over all medical institutions, hairdressing salons, baths, manicure salons, the food markets, restaurants, children's milk kitchens, cafe, dining rooms, bars and other catering establishments.
On the basis of the gained knowledge the bacteriologist can conduct a bacteriological research of the centralized water supply, bathing swimming pools, reservoirs, sewage, and also air and the soil.
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