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Лейкоцитоз - состояние, характеризующееся избытком белых кровяных телец в кровиThe leukocytosis is the state which is characterized by surplus of white blood cells (i.e. leukocytes) in blood.

Leukocytes are developed in marrow and are a part of immune system of the person, protecting us from invasion of "enemies" and not allowing reproduction of pathological cells.

General information

The quantity of leukocytes in blood is not a constant, it raises at emotional or exercise stresses, sharp temperature drops of the environment, reception of proteinaceous food, and also at diseases. In a case the leukocytosis is pathological while increase in number of leukocytes at the healthy person – a physiological leukocytosis.

Significant increase (to several hundred thousands) usually tells numbers of leukocytes about a serious illness of blood – a leukosis, and increase to several tens of thousands indicates inflammatory process.

Leukocytosis reasons

Treat the main reasons for a leukocytosis:

  • The acute infection is the most common cause of a leukocytosis;
  • Chronic inflammation. In the course of fight of leukocytes against dangerous bacteria which got into an organism inflammatory process begins. Under some conditions this process can accept chronic character therefore the level of leukocytes is increased constantly;
  • Damage of fabrics at injuries;
  • Improper feeding;
  • Overreaction from immune system - can develop at people who have a severe allergy or autoimmune diseases;
  • The disturbances connected with injury of marrow since in it leukocytes are developed;
  • Stresses, long or very strong psychological tension;
  • Some medicines.

The most common causes of a leukocytosis at children:

  • Infectious diseases;
  • Improper feeding;
  • Excessive exercise stresses;
  • Stresses.

Besides, it is impossible to forget that though it is rare, but the acute leukosis can be the cause of a leukocytosis at children.

Types of a leukocytosis

The leukocytosis can be true or absolute (at increase in leukocytes or mobilization of their stocks from marrow), and also redistribution or relative (increase in quantity of leukocytes as a result of a pachemia or their redistribution in vessels).

Distinguish also following types of a leukocytosis:

1. Physiological leukocytosis: it is observed after exercise stresses, meal, etc.;

2. Pathological symptomatic leukocytosis: arises at some infectious diseases, pyoinflammatory processes, and also as a result of a certain reaction of marrow to disintegration of fabrics which was caused by toxic influence or a circulatory disturbance;

3. Short-term leukocytosis: results from sharp "emission" of leukocytes in blood, for example, at a stress or overcooling. In such cases the disease has reactive character, i.e. disappears together with the reason of its emergence;

Нейрофильный лейкоцитоз

4. Neurophilic leukocytosis. Such state is most often caused by increase in education and an exit of neutrophils in blood, at the same time in a vascular bed increase in absolute number of leukocytes is noted. It is observed at an acute infection, a chronic inflammation, and also myeloproliferative diseases (a blood disease);

5. The eosinophilic leukocytosis develops as a result of acceleration of education or an exit of eosinophils in blood. Allergic reactions, including to products and medicines are the main reasons;

6. The basphilic leukocytosis is caused by increase in formation of basophiles. It is observed at pregnancy, nonspecific ulcer colitis, a myxedema;

7. The lymphocytic leukocytosis is characterized by increase in blood of lymphocytes. It is observed at persistent infections (a brucellosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, a viral hepatitis) and some acute (whooping cough);

8. The monocytic leukocytosis meets extremely seldom. It is observed at malignancies, a sarcoidosis, some bacterial infections.

Leukocytosis symptoms

The leukocytosis is not an independent disease and therefore its symptoms match symptoms of those diseases which caused it. At children the leukocytosis often passes asymptomatically for this reason doctors recommend to parents to take periodically the child's blood test on the analysis to find deviations as a part of blood at an early stage.

The most dangerous, though most rare species of a leukocytosis is the leukosis, or a blood cancer and therefore it is necessary to know its symptoms not to pass the beginning of a disease. So, at a leukosis common symptoms of a leukocytosis the following:

  • Causeless indisposition, weakness, fatigue;
  • The increased body temperature, the strengthened sweating at night;
  • Spontaneous hemorrhages, frequent formation of bruises, bruises;
  • Faints, dizziness;
  • Onychalgia, hands and abdominal cavity;
  • The complicated breath;
  • Small appetite;
  • Inexplicable loss of weight.

If you found in yourself two and more listed a sign, it is worth seeing a doctor and to make blood test.

Treatment of a leukocytosis

Methods of treatment of a leukocytosis completely depend on the disease which served as the reason of its emergence. At infectious processes, as a rule, appoint antibiotics and antiinflammatory drugs, for removal of allergic reaction antihistaminic and steroid means can be appointed. For treatment of a leukosis use chemotherapeutic drugs. The leukopheresis – extraction of leukocytes from blood then blood is transfused to the patient back can be in certain cases appointed.

It is necessary to remember that treatment of a leukocytosis cannot be carried out without clarification of the reason which caused it.

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