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Acidosis – the condition of an organism which is characterized by disturbance of acid-base balance of an organism with shift Ацидоз не является заболеваниемtowards increase in acidity and to reduction рН his environments. Accumulation of products of oxidation of organic acids which normal are quickly brought out of an organism is the main reason for development of a state. Increase in concentration of products of oxidation of organic acids at acidosis can be caused by external factors (inhalation of air with high concentration of carbon dioxide), and also the internal factors which are disturbances of functioning of systems therefore metabolism of products and accumulation of metabolites of organic acids is broken. Serious conditions at acidosis provoke shock, a coma and the death of the patient.

Acidosis of any genesis can lead to critical states of an organism:

  • Dehydration;
  • Increase in coagulability of blood;
  • Critical fluctuations of arterial pressure;
  • Myocardial infarction, heart attacks of parenchymatous bodies;
  • Decrease in volumes of the circulating blood;
  • Peripheral fibrinferments;
  • Dysfunction of a brain;
  • Coma;
  • Lethal outcome.

Classification of acidosis

On mechanisms of development of acidosis allocate the following types of disturbances:

  • Not respiratory acidosis;
  • Respiratory acidosis (inhalation of air with high concentration of carbon dioxide);
  • The mixed acidosis type (the state caused by various types of acidosis).

Not respiratory acidosis in turn is subject to the following classification:

  • Secretory acidosis – the state developed at dysfunction of removal of acids from an organism (renal failure);
  • Metabolic acidosis – the most difficult state which is characterized by accumulation of endogenous acids in body tissues;
  • Exogenous acidosis – the condition of increase in concentration of acids caused by receipt in an organism of a large amount of the substances transformed in the course of metabolism to acids.

Acidosis is classified by the level of a hydrogen indicator pH as:

  • Compensated;
  • Subcompensated;
  • Dekompensirovanny.

At achievement of the pH level of extreme minimum (7,24) and maximum (7,45) values (normal pH = 7,25 – 7,44) there is a denaturation of proteins, destruction of cells, depression of function of enzymes that can lead to death of an organism.

Acidosis: reasons of development of a disease

Acidosis is not a disease. This condition of an organism which is caused by influence of certain factors. At acidosis the following factors can become the reasons of development of this state:

  • Starvations, diets, alcohol abuse, smoking;
  • Poisonings, appetite loss, other disturbances of functioning of digestive tract;
  • Conditions of an organism at which metabolism is broken (diabetes mellitus, circulatory unefficiency, feverish states);
  • Pregnancy;
  • Malignant new growths;
  • Organism dehydration;
  • Renal failure;
  • Poisoning with substances which metabolism in an organism leads to formation of excess of acids;
  • Hypoglycemia (blood glucose lowering of the level);
  • Air hunger (at conditions of shock, anemia, heart failure);
  • Bicarbonate loss by kidneys;
  • Use of a certain number of drugs (salicylates, Calcii chloridum and other.);
  • Respiratory insufficiency.

In certain cases at reason acidosis, the states which are obviously indicating development, no.

Acidosis: symptoms, clinical picture of a disease

At acidosis Респираторный ацидоз symptoms hard give in to differentiation with symptoms of other diseases. At easy forms of acidosis symptoms are not associated with the shift of acid-base balance of an organism. The main symptoms at acidosis are:

  • Short-term nausea, vomiting;
  • Febricula;
  • Heartbeat strengthening, asthma;
  • Cardiac arrhythmias;
  • Increase in blood pressure;
  • Disorder of functions of the central nervous system (drowsiness, confusion of consciousness, dizziness, loss of consciousness, block);
  • Depressed cases;

It should be noted that at easy forms of acidosis symptoms can not be shown at all.

Diagnosis of acidosis

The following methods of researches are applied to exact diagnosis of acidosis:

  • The analysis of gas composition of blood (the fence of an arterial blood from a beam artery on a wrist is made for carrying out the analysis, the analysis of a venous blood will not allow to determine precisely the pH level);
  • The analysis of the pH level in urine;
  • The analysis of an arterial blood on serumal electrolytes.

Blood tests on the main indicators of exchange (gas composition and level of serumal electrolytes) show not only existence of acidosis, but also define acidosis type (respiratory, metabolic). For definition of origins of acidosis other researches can be required.

Acidosis: treatment

Proceeding from the fact that this state is caused by disturbances of functioning of systems of an organism at acidosis treatment comes down to therapy of a basic disease, morbid condition or the dysfunctions which provoked shift of acid-base balance of an organism.

For correction of a metabolic acidosis treatment assumes intravenous administration of liquid, and also treatment of the basic disease which caused a state.

At severe forms of acidosis treatment assumes purpose of the drugs containing sodium bicarbonate (drinking, infusion solutions) for increase in the pH level to value 7,2 above. Sodium bicarbonate is added to solutions of glucose or sodium of chloride depending on disturbances of volumes of the circulating blood owing to acidosis.

For stopping of pronounced indispositions at acidosis treatment is appointed symptomatic. At development of acidosis owing to poisoning treatment assumes removal of toxic from an organism, in cases of a serious poisoning dialysis is applied.

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