Main > Diagnostic methods> Amniocentesis


Прохождение АмниоцентезаDuring pregnancy for various reasons there can be a disturbance of a condition of a fruit. The child is surrounded with amniotic waters – amniotic liquid which contains also the living cells of his skin which peeled, but being in process of growth and other substances. Their research helps to find valuable information about health of a fruit, and this diagnostic method – amniocentesis is called.

What is amniocentesis?

Amniocentesis – a method of a research of amniotic liquid. Represents piercing of an abdominal wall of a uterus. In the course of its carrying out select a small amount of amniotic waters and conduct a number of researches: hormonal (quantity, composition of hormones), immunological (identification of disturbances in separate links of immunity), biochemical (composition of amniotic liquid). The summary analysis of these researches of liquid helps to define the general condition of a fruit and to reveal a risk degree of genetic anomalies.

What pathologies can be revealed by amniocentesis method

There are several hundred kinds of genetic defects which amniocentesis method, including chromosomal diseases (Edwards's syndromes, Patau and Down) can reveal, defects of a neurotubule (spinal hernia, etc.).

However does not show such inborn defects as a wolf mouth and a labium leporium, amniocentesis.

Indications to passing of a research

Only the pregnant woman as this procedure is accompanied by certain risks can make the decision on use of a method of amniocentesis. And opinions on expediency of this research disperse. First of all, it is necessary to be ready to the fact that in case of detection of anomaly, perhaps, it is necessary to interrupt pregnancy. Nevertheless, early detection of defect at the child will give time to find out what help can be necessary.

And as amniocentesis poses some threat to health of mother and her child, this test is suggested to be done only to women who have powerful premises to development in a fruit of genetic diseases, including in cases when:

  • Ultrasonography revealed a serious problem, for example, defect of heart that can testify to chromosomal anomaly;
  • According to results of screening tests there is a risk of the birth of the baby with chromosomal anomalies;
  • One or several relatives of the woman and/or the father of the child have some genetic deviations;
  • The pregnant woman is more than 35 years old as from this age the risk of the birth of the sick child – 1 case approximately on 300 increases (for comparison, at the age of mother of 20 years this ratio 1 to 2000).
  • The woman already had a pregnancy with genetic anomalies at a fruit.

Amniocentesis – the term and a way of carrying out

Apply amniocentesis method on duration of gestation of 16 - 18 weeks (i.e. 14 weeks after the first day of the first periods which did not come). However if the doctor has bases to suspect development of heart disease or a serious genetic disease at a fruit, then performing amniocentesis on term up to 14 weeks is allowed.

Процедура АмниоцентезаAlso in some separate cases carry out amniocentesis and on terms of later for the purpose of abortion if on that is medical indications. In this case in a bubble administer strong solution of salt or other drug.

The obstetrician-gynecologist in the operating room carries out this diagnostic test. Before the procedure of the pregnant woman surely do ultrasonography to define a placenta arrangement in order to avoid its damage during a puncture.

The puncture is done through a front abdominal wall of a uterus, previously having processed the small site of skin of a stomach five-percent spirit solution of iodine. The place of a puncture is anesthetized local anesthesia to reduce discomfortable feelings. Under ultrasonography control the doctor enters a fine long hollow needle into an amniotic cavity and gains 15-20 ml of liquid which sends to the laboratory analysis. The laboratory counts all chromosomes and define their structure, however the procedure lasts two-three weeks. The matter is that the diagnostic purposes require a certain quantity of cells of the kid which grow up in special conditions for this reason the woman receives results not at once.

Directly after amniocentesis of the patient can feel pain in a stomach.

At some after amniocentesis insignificant bloody allocations are observed. Therefore, as a rule, the doctor recommends a bed rest within a day.

Also after amniocentesis some time the doctor will check heartbeat of the kid and to watch the woman to prevent possible uterine reductions.

Contraindications to amniocentesis

  • existence in a uterus of a benign tumor;
  • uterus malformations;
  • placenta arrangement on a front wall of a uterus;
  • threat of abortion;
  • infectious processes or feverish states.

Amniocentesis effects

Carrying out this research is accompanied by some risks. Such effects of amniocentesis are possible:

  • Development of an infection or other complications (at one of 200 women);
  • Bleeding at the woman or a fruit;
  • Feeling of pains within several hours after the procedure – the most frequent effects of amniocentesis;
  • Abortion of the healthy child (1 case from 500);
  • Spontaneous abortion. To mother who has a negative Rhesus factor, before the procedure, with the purpose to protect the kid from its antibodies, do a Rho-gamma-globulin injection. In 2 cases from 100 this prick provokes an abortion;
  • Traumatizing a fruit (the probability of such effect of amniocentesis is almost equal to zero, but, nevertheless, it is possible if the doctor touches with a needle the vital zone of the child);
  • Damage of a bag of waters that leads to bleeding and the expiration of amniotic liquid (the patient will have to lay down on preservation, treatment can drag on up to several months);
  • Premature births.

Considering all aforesaid, each woman before agreeing to test, has to consider possible effects of amniocentesis and weigh all pros and cons. Besides, the test result all the same cannot guarantee the birth of absolutely healthy child, it only excludes some pathologies. Its accuracy makes about 99,4%. Therefore each pregnant woman should consult with the geneticist and already then to make the final decision.

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