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Atrophic rhinitis

Atrophic rhinitis or ozena is a chronic inflammation of a mucous membrane of a nose which is characterized by an atrophy mucous, and also the nerve terminations which are in it. Atrophic rhinitis happens two types – primary atrophic rhinitis and secondary atrophic rhinitis.Атрофический ринит - воспаление слизистой носовой полости

The microorganisms breeding at atrophic rhinitis exhale an unpleasant smell from a nasal cavity which the diseased does not feel at all as the center which is responsible for perception of smells atrophies. Patients usually complain of a nose congestion in spite of the fact that the nasal cavity is empty that can be caused as a result of an anesthesia because of an atrophy of nerves in a nose so the patient does not feel a flow of the inhaled air.

The disease most often occurs at women, and, as a rule, appear during puberty, however it can arise also at one-year-old age.

Such infections as syphilis, lupus or leprosy can lead to destruction of nasal structure and to atrophic changes. Atrophic rhinitis can also be result of old purulent sinusitis, radiation therapy of a nose or surgical removal of nasal sinks.

Reasons of atrophic rhinitis

Are the most common causes of chronic atrophic rhinitis:

  • Extensive destruction of a mucous membrane of a nose and nasal sinks at nose surgery;
  • Chronic sinusitis;
  • Deficit of nutrients;
  • Endocrine imbalance;
  • Radiation;
  • Granulematozny infections, such as leprosy, syphilis, tuberculosis and others.

Treat the major factors promoting chronic atrophic rhinitis:

  • Atrophic rhinitis tends to begin during puberty;
  • Caucasian and Mongoloid race natives of the equatorial Africa are more susceptible to a disease, than;
  • Vitamin deficiency of A, D or iron;
  • Infections of Klebsiella ozaenae, Proteus, diphtheroids and others;
  • Autoimmune infections;
  • The disease is descended.

Symptoms of atrophic rhinitis

The most common symptoms of atrophic rhinitis are:

  • Nose congestion;
  • Nasal bleedings;
  • Anosmia;
  • Dryness of a nasal cavity;
  • Psychological depression;
  • Greenish, black or yellow crusts in a nasal cavity.

Infectious atrophic rhinitis

Infectious atrophic rhinitis – a chronic disease which is shown in the form of a serous and purulent inflammation of a mucous membrane of a nose which consequence the atrophy of nasal sinks and deformation of bones of a skull is.Хлорамфеникол - один из препаратов для лечения атрофического ринита

Pyocyanic sticks, bacterium of Bordetella Bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma are considered as the reasons of infectious atrophic rhinitis.

Symptoms of infectious atrophic rhinitis are sneezing, gradually increasing cold and conjunctivitis at the normal or increased temperature. Patients are uneasy, shake the head, they reduce appetite and they sharply grow thin. Further symmetry of both sides of a jaw is broken, tuberosity, in the beginning unilateral, and then bilateral appears, there is a softening and a curvature of a nasal partition to the right or left side. Under eyes edematous bags, puffiness and paresis in the head appear.

Infectious atrophic rhinitis is treated by means of washing by weak solution of iodine, weak solution of broth of garlic, permanganate potassium with the subsequent introduction of a lysozyme, penicillin and streptomycin.

Treatment of atrophic rhinitis

Treatment of atrophic rhinitis can medicamentally be performed or by means of surgical intervention.

Medical treatment of atrophic rhinitis is included by the following possible procedures and the used drugs:

  • Nasal irrigations of a nasal cavity normal saline solution;
  • Nasal irrigations and removals of crusts with use of alkaline solutions;
  • 25% of glucose with glycerin are applied on a mucous membrane of a nose to suppress growth of fetid proteolytic microorganisms;
  • Local antibiotics, such as chloramphenicol;
  • Oestradiol and D2 vitamin;
  • Oestradiol spray;
  • System streptomycin;
  • Potassium iodide;
  • Extract of a placenta is entered into a submucosa;
  • Jung's operations;
  • Narrowing of a nasal cavity, submucosal administration of teflon paste, section and medial shift of a sidewall of a nose;
  • Transfer of a channel of a parotid gland in a genyantrum or a mucous membrane of a nose.

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