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First aid at burns

Оказание первой помощи при термических ожогахBurn is called damage of body tissues, as a result of influence of high temperature. Except thermal, burns happen also electric, chemical and radiation.

Thermal, or thermal burns concern to the most widespread, especially in a younger age group – at small children the vast majority of burns happens as a result of a scalding by boiled water.

There are several classifications of burns, in our country A. A. Vishnevsky's classification dividing damages into degrees depending on depth of damage of fabrics is accepted. Knowledge of classification allows to orient quickly in a situation and not to be mistaken at first-aid treatment. So, according to Vishnevsky distinguish 4 degrees of burns:

  1. Erythema stage, or reddenings;
  2. Stage of bubbles;
  3. Skin necrosis stage;
  4. The stage of a necrosis of skin and subjects of fabrics (a fatty tissue, muscles, sinews, and sometimes and bones) which is also called by a carbonization stage.

The first two stages carry to easy degree, the third and fourth – to burns of heavy degree, or deep burns. This division is conditional as does not consider the area of defeat and special anatomic zones (the face, eyes, inguinal area, joints concern to them), nevertheless, idea of weight of defeat and of what actions of first aid should be undertaken, it gives.

First aid at burns of easy degree

Burns of easy degree do not demand hospitalization, as a rule, of rather house treatment, however only if first aid was given correctly. So, at such defeats, after the termination of influence of the injuring factor, it is necessary:

  1. To make room of a burn from clothes if it is. At the same time it is inadmissible to pull together clothes since it is possible to injure even more skin (if necessary fabric should be cut);
  2. To place the burned space for flowing cold water for 10-20 minutes or to put a cold compress. To inadmissibly use ice since the frostbite of fabrics can be added to a burn for cooling of skin;
  3. To process the struck place an antiseptic agent. It is possible to use antiburn means, for example Panthenol, it is allowed to process the burned surface alcohol. It is impossible to apply iodine, solution of permanganate potassium, and also oil, fat ointments and creams – what interferes with air exchange;
  4. To apply not pressure sterile pressure bandage the damaged site of skin, at the same time it is not necessary to use vatu since it is quite difficult to remove its fibers from a wound surface;
  5. At a megalgia to give to the victim anesthetic. It is possible to use Paracetamol, Aspirin (it it is undesirable to children to give), Nimesil, the Nurofen, etc.

As a rule, these measures of first aid at burns of easy degree quite enough. Similar damages within 10-14 days begin to live, the main objective in their treatment – not to allow additional traumatizing the affected site and entering of an infection.

First aid at burns of heavy degree

In case of thermal defeats of III and IV degrees, and also the burns of the II degree affecting extensive sites of skin or anatomically significant areas, help is given in a hospital therefore the victim needs to call the ambulance as soon as possible. Waiting for arrival of the doctor and after elimination of a disturbing factor, a measure for first-aid treatment at burns of heavy degree are as follows:

  1. It is necessary to make sure that there is no site left of the smoldering clothes. It is not necessary to delete clothes scraps from the injured skin;
  2. To close the burned surface whenever possible sterile, or at least pure leaky adjacent bandage;
  3. At deep damages it is impossible to immerse the injured body part under water, it is also not necessary to use ice. Instead it is necessary to humidify with cold water a bandage;
  4. To give to drink the victim warm tea or the warm added some salt alkaline water (for its preparation in 1 l of water to stir 1-2 g of baking soda and 3 g of salt);
  5. Injured to place so that the burned part of a body was higher than the level of heart.

To use medicines of local appointment, even such as Panthenol, in this case does not follow, processing of wounds will be made in hospital.

First aid at electric burns

First aid at an electric burn consists in isolation of the victim of influence of the damaging agent then it is necessary to check existence of pulse and breath. If they are absent, it is necessary to start resuscitation actions – the closed cardiac massage, breath of companies - in - a mouth or a mouth - in - a nose. As soon as possible it is necessary to call the ambulance, continuing resuscitation actions before stabilization of pulse and breath or before arrival of the doctor.

The superficial injuries of skin received at an electric burn are processed as well as at a burn thermal.

First aid at corrosive burns

The corrosive burn is caused by impact on skin or a mucous membrane of acids, alkalis and other caustic substances. In spite of the fact that the damaging agents can be different, first-aid treatment at burns of this type begins equally: the damaged site needs to be placed under flowing water for 10-20 minutes. It is fair for all corrosive burns, except for burns not extinguished lime and sulphuric acid.

After washing by water, the place of a burn is processed by weak solution of alkali, for example soda (1 teaspoon on a glass of water) or soap solution (soap it is desirable to take economic, without additives). Burns sulphuric acid should be processed alkalescent solution, without preliminary washing by water.

Alkaline burns after washing process subacidic solution – solution of vinegar or citric acid will approach.

The burns caused by not extinguished lime process oil or fat at once – and it is the only case when at first-aid treatment at burns fat ointments are used.

It must be kept in mind that burns alkalis are more dangerous as at them the clear boundary between the damaged site and healthy fabric is not formed. It is a so-called kollikvatsionny necrosis which tends to distribution even after completion of influence of the damaging agent.

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