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Radiation injuries

Radiation injury is the damage of fabric caused by influence of the ionizing radiation.Лучевое поражение - это повреждение ткани The term "ionizing radiation" is meant as the waves of high energy which are let out by artificial or natural sources having ability to get and ionize environment objects. The damage of fabrics caused by radiation can be carried out by short-term (single) or long influence.

Radiation injuries can be a consequence of radiation therapy at which are affected not only struck, but also some part of healthy fabrics. Under the influence of radiation in an organism pathological process develops. If the dose was tolerant, it regresses independently, leaving only softly expressed marks of a sclerosis and an atrophy of fabrics (local reaction to radiation). In case of exceeding of admissible doses of influence there are radiation injuries of irreversible character. The obliteration of vessels, a sclerosis, a degeneration of nerve fibrils and the terminations, an atrophy of fabrics with substitution with the hyalinized connecting fabric are the cornerstone of damages.

Classification of radiation injuries

Radoactive radiation can cause two types of radiation injuries: acute and chronic.

Acute (immediate) radiation injuries have two clinical forms:

  • Acute radial illness. It is characterized by external beta, gamma neutron radiation;
  • Acute focal radiation injuries. Are caused by a contact way (hit of radiative effects on clothes, skin, mucous membranes).

Chronic radiation injuries are shown in the form of a chronic radial illness and arise owing to long external or internal radiation. Degree of manifestation of chronic radiation injuries is caused by a total exposure dose, and also physiological features of this or that body.

Typical manifestations of a chronic radial illness are the regional disturbances of blood circulation in extremities, skin, a brain which are shown in the form of headaches, weakness, a chill in extremities, neurologic symptoms, changes of cordial activity, a digestive tract, an asthenic syndrome.

One of the most common forms of focal radiation injuries - beam dermatitis. The uneven radiative effects are the reason of its emergence at accidents on atomic installations, explosions of ammunition, and in living conditions - roentgenotherapies of tumoral and not tumoral diseases. Frequent localization of focal radiation injuries are fingers, hands, a face, the front surface of hips.

Radiation injuries of skin

Classification Степени лучевого пораженияof radiation injuries of skin is also subject to division on acute and chronic.

Acute radiation injuries of skin represent such diseases as:

  • Early beam reaction (represents the edematous erythema which is followed by a small itch and not less than 3 Gr develop for 1-2 days after radiation in a dose);
  • Beam alopecia. Not less than 3,75 Gr are followed by loss of long hair two-four weeks later after radiation by a dose;
  • Acute beam dermatitis. Appears within 2 months from the moment of radiation. The erythematic form of defeat is noted at a dose of 8-12 of Gr, differing from other dermatitis in crimson and cyanotic skin color, feeling of pain, itch, a hair loss;
  • Acute violent dermatitis. Not less than 12-20 Gr are characterized by a radiation dosage, being followed by fervescence, pronounced pains and burning. Healing of erosion after opening of bubbles happens slowly and is followed by pigmentation disturbance, development of an atrophy, teleangiectasias;
  • Acute necrotic dermatitis develops after radiation by a dosage over 25 Gr and is followed by painful pains, a fever, high temperature, weakness. Damages of skin are presented in the form of hypostases, erity, bubbles after which opening appear is long not healing ulcers. When healing wounds hems which insignificant traumatizing can lead to a necrosis of fabrics are formed.

Chronic radiation injuries of skin, in turn, are subdivided on:

  • The chronic beam dermatitis developing on site acute dermatitis. The disease is clinically shown by a skin atrophy, dryness, formation of painful cracks against the background of which emergence of a papillomatosis and hyperkeratosis is possible.
  • Late beam dermatosis (in the form of indurative hypostasis, a late beam ulcer, beam cancer).

Indurative hypostasis develops as a result of damage of small absorbent vessels and, as a result, disturbance of outflow of a lymph. Clinical implication - dense hypostasis without any painful feelings on which permission there are a teleangiectasia and an atrophy of fabrics.

Against the background of trophic changes of skin the late beam ulcer which is characterized by the expressed painful feelings is formed. In the course of long existence of beam ulcers such disease hard to cure as beam cancer can develop.

Prevention of radiation injuries

It is possible to carry the pharmacological drugs reducing weight of manifestation of radiation injury of an organism to the means performing prevention of radiation injuries. They include the medicines increasing radiation resistance of an organism, radioprotectors, antiactinic drugs, medicines capable to stop (to prevent) manifestations of priming reaction on radiation exposure.

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