- Makulodistrofiya's symptoms
- Makulodistrofiya's reasons
- Makulodistrofiya's treatment
Makulodistrofiya — the concept combining group of diseases at which the retina of an eye is surprised also is broken the central sight. Pathology of vessels and ischemia (disturbance of food) of the central area of a retina responsible for the central sight is the cornerstone of a makulodistrofiya. The age makulodistrofiya — one of the most frequent reasons of a blindness at people is more senior than 55 years. For the first time the age macular degeneration was described by Otto Haab in 1885.
Symptoms of a makulodistrofiya are very various, at the same time the following initial manifestations are characteristic:
- sight misting;
- difficulties during the reading and face recognition.
Makulodistrofiya is two types — dry and wet (exudative). Most of patients (about 90%) suffer from a dry form of this disease at which the yellowish plaque afterwards making adverse effect on photoreceptors in a retina macula lutea is formed and collects. The dry makulodistrofiya develops at first only on one eye. Much more dangerously wet VMD at which behind a retina new blood vessels in the direction of a macula lutea begin to grow. The wet makulodistrofiya progresses much quicker, than dry, and is practically always shown at those people who already suffer from a dry makulodistrofiya.
Aging in itself is the main factor of risk. At 50-year age at the person the probability to ache with a makulodistrofiya makes only 2%. The risk increases up to 30% at those to whom for 75. Also people who have a genetic predisposition to a makulodistrofiya are most inclined to development of this disease of the woman (as they live longer than men). Risk factor is also belonging to a certain race: the probability of loss of sight at Europeans is higher, than at the Afro-Americans.
The reason of development of a makulodistrofiya is still unknown to scientists, there is also no exact idea of why the macula lutea collapses. Various theories move forward and checked. Some researchers claim what the lack of some vitamins and mineral substances does the person to more vulnerable before a makulodistrofiya. For example, researches show that the risk of a makulodistrofiya increases at a lack of an organism of antioxidants, vitamins C and E, mineral substances, such as zinc (which is present at our organism, but concentrates in an eyeglobe), carotinoids of Luteinum and zeaxanthin — pigments directly of a retina macula lutea.
The last developments in the field of treatment of a wet makulodistrofiya led to drug creation ранибизумаб (Lutsentis) who is entered into a cavity of an eye and suppresses activity and growth of neogenic vessels and subretinal neovascular membranes, leading not only to stabilization, but also to sight improvement. Usually 5 injections a year are required, the course of treatment makes about 2 years Improvement of sight at most of patients occurs after the first injection. Its use is possible both at a wet makulodistrofiya, and at a diabetic retinopathy, and also, in combination with photodynamic therapy.